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ARCH/EOLOGICAL SURVEY OF EGYPT 



Edited by F. L. GRIFFITH, B.A., F.S.A. 



EL BEESHEH 



PART I. 



(THE TOMB OP TEHUTI-HETEP) 



BY 



PERCY E. NEWBERRY 



WITH PLAN AND MEASUREMENTS OF THE TOMB 



BY 



G. WILLOUGHBY FRASER, F.S.A. 



WITH THIRTY-FOUR PLATES 



SPECIAL PUBLICATION OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND 




LONDON: 

SOLD AT 

The OFFICES OF THE EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND, 37, Great Russell Street, W.C., 

and 15, Blagden Street, Boston, Mass., LT.S.A. ; 

and by KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TRUBNER & CO., Paternoster House, Charing Cross Road; 

B. QUARITCH, 15, Piccadilly; A. ASHER & Co., 13, Bedford Street, Covent Garden. 



/ 



DT 
5*7 

/Jo. %> 




EGYPT EXPLORATION FUND. 



IprestDent. 
SIR JOHN FOWLER, Bart., K.C.M.G. 

Wcesffiresioents. 



Sir Charles Newton, K.C.B., D.C.L. 
R. Stuart Poole, Esq., LL.T). {Ron. Sec). 
E. Maunde Thompson, Esq., C.B., D.C.L., LL.D. 
Charles Dudley Warner, Esq.,L.H.D., LL.D. 

(U.S.A.). 
The Rev. W. C. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L. 

(Hon. Treats, and Hon. Sec, U.S.A.). 



The Hon. Edward G. Mason (U.S.A.). 

The Hon. John Geo. Bourinot, D.C.L 

(Canada). 

Prof. G. Maspero, D.C.L. (France). 
Josiah Mullens, Esq. (Australia). 
M. Charles Hentsch (Switzerland). 



1bon. treasurers. 
H. A, Grueber, Esq., F.S.A. The Rev. W. C. Winslow, D.D., D.C.L. (Boston, U.S.A.). 

Clarence H. Clark, Esq. (Penn. U.S.A.). 

1foon. Secretary. 
R. Stuart Poole, Esq., LL.D. 



Members of 
The Rt. Hon. Lord Amherst ofHackney.F.S.A. 
T. H. Baylis, Esq., M.A., Q.C. 
Miss Bradbury. 
J. S. Cotton, Esq., M.A. 
M. J. de Morgan (Birecteur General des Anti- 

quites de Vfigypte). 
Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D. 
W. Fowler, Esq. 
Major - General Sir Francis Grenfell, 

G.C.M.G., K.C.B. 
F. L. Griffith, Esq., B.A., F.S.A. 
T. Farmer Hall, Esq. 
Pbof. T. Hayter Lewis, F.S.A. 
Mrs. McClure. 



Committee. 

The Rev. W. MacGregor, M.A. 
Prof. J. H. Middleton, M.A., Litt.D., D.C.L. 
A. S. Murray, Esq., LL.D., F.S.A. 
D. Parrish, Esq. (U.S.A.). 
Francis Wm. Percival, Esq. 
Lieut.-Col. J. C. Ross, R.E., C.M.G. 
The Rev. Prof. A. H. Sayoe, M.A., LL.D. 
H. Villiers Stuart, Esq. 
Mrs. Tirard. 

The Rev. H. G. Tomkins, M.A. 
The Rt. Rev. The Lord Bishop of Truro. 
Hermann Weber, Esq., M.D. 
Major-General Sir Charles Wilson, K.C.B., 
K.C.M.G., F.R.S. 



CONTENTS. 



Peepaoe .... 

I. Introduction — 

1. General description of the tomb of Tehutihetep . 

2. Previous work at the tomb .... 

3. The nomarch Tehutihetep and his family . 

II. Detailed Description op the Tomb, and Explanation 

op the Scenes and Inscriptions — 

1. Architectural features 

2. System of decoration 

3. Facade, &c. 

4. Outer chamber . 

Ceiling 

Right and left-hand walls 

Inner wall . 

5. Inner chamber . 

Outer wall . 
Left-hand wall 
Inner wall . 
Right-hand wall . 

6. Shrine .... 

Inner wall . 

Right and left-hand walls 

Index 

List op Plates (with references to the pages on which they 
are described) ....... 



PAGE 

vii 



1-3 
3-5 

6-8 



PLATE 



9-10 


IL-IV 


10-11 




12-13 


V 


13-15 


> VI.-IX 


13 


VI 


13 


VII 


14-15 


VIIL-IX 


15-38 


X.-XXXI 


15-16 


X.-XI. 


16-30 


XII.-XIX. 


30-32 


XX.-XXIII. 


32-38 


XXIV.-XXXI. 


39-40 


XXXII.-XXXIV. 


39 


XXXIII. 


39-40 


XXXIL, XXXIV. 



41 



44 



PEEFACE. 



The Survey of the Middle Kingdom tombs in the Gebel el Bersheh was 
made during the winter 1891-2. The party, consisting of Messrs. P. E. 
Newberry, G. W. Fraser, and Howard Carter, arrived at El Bersheh on the 
24th November, 1891, and in the middle of December was joined by 
Mr. M. W. Blackden, who kindly volunteered his services in order to make 
coloured copies of the wall-paintings in the tombs, and gave much assistance 
in superintending the clearance of the debris, &c, which had accumulated 
in them. The work of tracing in outline the wall-paintings and inscriptions 
was finished on the 2nd January, 1892, when Mr. Newberry returned to 
England. Mr. Carter also left to join Prof. Petrie in his work at 
Tell el Amarna. 

The Survey of the hill and tombs was completed by Messrs. Fraser 
and Blackden in February, 1892. In May, 1893, Mr. Howard Carter again 
went to El Bersheh, and stayed there till the end of June, making water- 
colour drawings of the most interesting scenes and of hieroglyphic signs 
in the tomb of Tehutihetep, and completing the tracings. 

In all, there are ten inscribed tombs of the Middle Kingdom at 
El Bersheh. Of these, the tomb of Tehutihetep (the second from the 
north-west), published in the present volume, is by far the finest and 
most interesting. The remaining nine inscribed tombs and a Survey of 
the Gebel el Bersheh, together with the general account of the group, 
will be published in El Bersheh, Part II. 

The plan, elevation, and sections, and the details of the doorways and 
columns, are published from drawings made on the spot by Mr. G. W. Fraser. 



PREFACE. 

Vlll 



The coloured frontispiece is from an excellent facsimile made by Mr. Blackden. 
The plates are the work of Mr. Carter and Mr. Newberry. Those numbered 
v, vi„ xiv., x.vi., xxiv., xxvii.-xxxi., are wholly or in part the work of 
Mr. Newberry, all the remaining plates are by Mr. Carter. Mr. Newberry 
is also, of course, responsible for the copies of inscriptions. 

The letter-press, as in the second volume of Beni Hasan, is the joint 
production of Mr. Griffith and Mr. Newberry. 



EL BEESHEH. 



:p.a_:r,t i. 



The Tomb op ^ _ Tehutihetep, % 



v -y o D 



^T - " GEEAT OhIEP OP THE HAEE NOME." 



I. INTRODUCTION. 



1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE 
TOMB OF TEHUTI-HETEP. 

Like most of the magnates who were buried 
around him, Tehutihetep l ( & ^^)» tne n °ble 
occupant of the second tomb, was prince of 
the nome of Hermopolis. His capital was the 
ancient - - $L Khemenu, now marked by the 
mounds of Eshmimen, 2 and it is probable that 
there was his residence. The city lay in the 
middle of the valley, and at some distance 
from the west bank of the Nile ; the nearest 
point of the hills is about five miles due east, 
near the site of the Roman city of Antinoe, 
but for some reason the princes of the Middle 



In the Early and Middle Kingdoms the name of Thoth 



was written 



\\ 



Zehuti, the 



"1 



* changing first to 



<-=-a d, and then to a t in the course of time. Tehnti being 
more familiar than Zehuti, we think it will be convenient 
to use the later form Tehutihetep in the place of Zehuti- 
hetep, although the latter would be more strictly consistent 
with our system of transliteration. 

2 See map of the neighbourhood of El Bersheh, El Bersheh, 
Part II, fig. 1. 



Kingdom, in choosing a site for their necropolis, 
went further south, and selected the north side of 
a rocky valley in the hills behind the modern Der 
en Nakhleh, " the convent of the date-palm." 
The group of tombs is known to Egyptologists 
by the name of El Bersheh, the hills being 
called Gebel el Bersheh by the natives ; El 
Bersheh is also the name of a village and of a 
der, or monastery, near by. That part of the 
Gebel or hill of El Bersheh in which the tombs 
of the Middle Kingdom nomarchs are situated 
is about five miles south of Antinoe, and seven 
miles from Eshmimen in a direct line across 
the Nile. 

The tomb of Tehutihetep is the most con- 
spicuous of all that exist at El Bersheh, and 
was probably the finest tomb ever excavated 
there. Unfortunately, it has been much 
shattered by an earthquake, which apparently 
took place many centuries ago, causing the 
limestone strata to slip irregularly one over 
another along their south-west dip, so that 
the roof of the tomb has been projected for- 
ward about a foot, and the ceiling of the 
outer chamber has entirely collapsed, bringing 



EL BERSHEH. 



down with it the architrave and columns of 
the portico. To reach the tomb from the 
river it is best to land opposite Raramun and 
walk across the cultivated land, through the 
Coptic village of Der en Nakhleh, to the edge 
of the desert. A Coptic cemetery lies at the 
foot of the hills. Up the slope, due east of 
Der en Nakhleh, can be discerned a road or 
dromos, marked out on either side by large 
boulders. It ascends the hill to the summit, 
and near the top passes the terrace, on to 
which all the larger tombs of the Middle 
Kingdom open. 

The tomb described in the present volume 
is the second inscribed one on the south side 
of the great roadway, and is marked No. 2 on 
the Survey to be published in El Bersheh, 
Part II., PL 3. It consists of a portico, a 
main chamber, and a shrine, and like all the 
other tombs in the group it is excavated in the 

hill-side. 

The facade, before its collapse, must have 
presented an imposing architectural front. It 
consisted of two noble columns with palm-leaf 
capitals supporting a massive architrave, all 
coloured pink and marbled with pale-green to 
represent rose-granite ; at the sides were seen 
the names of the kings under whom Tehuti- 
hetep, the owner of the tomb, had served. The 
space behind the columns was so large that 
we have called it an outer chamber. The walls 
were sculptured with scenes of hunting large 
game with nets, of fowling with the throw-stick, 
and of fishing with spear or harpoon. The 
left-hand wall (now wholly destroyed) was pro- 
bably devoted to military and wrestling scenes, 
such as we see so often in the tombs of the 
same period at Beni Hasan. The ceiling was 
painted blue and studded with yellow quatre- 
foils ; the design evidently represents a starred 
canopy supported by a transverse rafter, the 
latter being also imitated in the painting. 

A narrow doorway, the jambs of which 
were inscribed, led from this chamber into 



another rectangular hall-the main or inner 
chamber— measuring about twenty-five feet 
from front to back, by twenty feet in breadth, 
and thirteen feet six inches in height. The 
walls of this chamber were also covered with 
sculpture and painting above a plain black 
dado. On the front wall at either side of the 
door we have curious scenes of purification. 
On the upper part of the left-hand wall is the 
celebrated painting of the "Colossus on a 
sledge," a huge alabaster statue of Tehutihetep 
being dragged by nearly two hundred men ; on 
the lower part of the same wall are scenes of 
boats on the Nile, and cattle, the whole referring 
to a great stock-taking, to which the herdsmen 
of the nome brought in their annual tribute of 
cattle. On the inner wall we see Tehutihetep 
netting wild fowl with his wife and son, 
watching fishermen hauling a net to shore, and 
receiving birds, fish, &c, from his estate. The 
greater part of the right-hand wall fell with the 
earthquake, and was smashed into fragments ; 
from the portion still in place and the fragments 
recovered from the debris, we gather that the 
scenes depicted the owner's household and the 
occupations of his farm servants, gardeners, 
&c. The ceiling of this chamber is decorated 
like that of the portico, but with the support- 
ing beam represented as placed longitudi- 
nally, and in the centre is a rectangular 
space of a different pattern, crossed by the 
beam and bordered by a black line. This 
space is filled with a black and yellow check 
pattern. 

At the inner end three low steps lead into a 
small shrine about four feet broad by eight 
feet deep and eight feet high. It is remarkable 
that it contained no statues like those at Beni 
Hasan and elsewhere. On each of the side 
walls is painted a scene of offerings, sur- 
mounted by the Tchelcer ornament. Instead of 
statues there are two figures in low relief on 
the inner wall, of equal height, and facing 
one another, representing Tehutihetep and his 



PREVIOUS WORK AT THE TOMB. 



father Kay. 1 Tehutihetep generally calls him- 
self " son of Kay " in his inscriptions, but 
none of the scenes in the larger chambers of 
the tomb refer to Kay. 

The age of the tomb is clearly indicated by 
the cartouches engraved on the outer corners of 
the facade, according to which Tehutihetep lived 
in the reigns of Amenemhat II., Usertsen II., 
and Usertsen III., so that it was probably in 
the long reign of the last-named king that this 
tomb was completed and the nomarch died. 

It is interesting to find amongst the sculptures 
the names of the principal workmen employed 
upon the excavation and adornment of this 
masterpiece of Middle Kingdom workmanship. 



The " director of the work " was a J jg j 

^, □ © " Ab-Kau's son Sep," and the artist 
employed to decorate it (j c ~~ i (j ■£ A T VX %\ 
"Amena-ankhu." These men's handiwork was 
well worthy to carry down their fame to 
posterity. 



2. PREVIOUS WORK AT THE TOMB. 

The group of tombs at El Bersheh was 
quite unknown to the members of the great 
French expedition under Napoleon, as well as 
to their predecessors. Its discovery, how- 
ever, dates back to 1817, and we owe the first 
account of it to two naval officers, Captain 
Mangles and Lieutenant Irby. 2 These two 
travellers, after a voyage up the Nile to the 
first cataract, joined an expedition consisting 
of Messrs. Bankes, Beechey, and Belzoni, who 
were about to proceed into Nubia in order to 
effect an entrance through the sand-drifts into 
the great temple at Abu Simbel. At that date 
travellers in Nubia were beset with many 



1 Pronounced Ka-y. 

2 Travels in Egypt, Nubia, Syria and Asia Minor during 
the years 1817-1818, by the Hon. C. L. Irby and S. Mangles, 
London, 1823. 



difficulties, owing to the mutual jealousies of 
the local governors and the disorganized state 
of the country. Labourers could hardly be 
obtained, and it was chiefly by their own 
exertions that these travellers, half-starved as 
they were by the refusal of the people to supply 
them with food, at length excavated the door- 
way of the great temple ; and for the first time 
for many centuries man set foot within its 
brilliantly decorated halls. Those who had 
hoped to find portable treasures within were 
doubtless disappointed, but our travellers 
sought adventure and discovery. On their 
homeward voyage they broke their journey at 
several points where they heard of the exis- 
tence of important remains. At El Kab they 
admired the tomb of Paheri. 3 On the 26th 
of August, 1817, they reached Raramun, and 
guided presumably by Mr. Brine, the English 
founder of the sugar factory there, they dis- 
covered the tomb of Tehutihetep, and were 
much struck by the interesting character of 
its paintings. 4 Messrs. Bankes and Beechey 
revisited it at an early opportunity and made 
drawings, which probably exist to this day, 
but have not yet been traced to their present 
owners. A copy of Mr. Bankes' outline of the 
colossus has, however, been seen by us amongst 

3 Published in the Xlth Memoir of the Egypt Exploration 
Fund. 

4 " Before we leave Egypt I should inform you that we 
discovered an interesting tomb opposite Mr. Brine's, at 
Kadimore [Karamun]. The sides were covered with paint- 
ings, among which are two groups, of a description very 
rarely, if ever, to be met with ; one of them represents the 
removal of a colossus between thirty and forty feet high, 
and seated on a chair ; upwards of a hundred labourers 
are employed. The other drawing represents an Egyptian 
garden, with exotics in flower-pots, arranged on a terrace, 
near which is an arbour, bee-hives, &c. Mr. Bankes and 
Mr. Beechey are the only travellers who have visited this 
tomb since we discovered it : the former has accurate draw- 
ings of all its contents." — Irby and Mangles, Travels, 
London, 1821, p. 165. The reference to bee-hives is due 
to some misconception, as there is no sign of such amongst 
the paintings here or in any other tomb at present known 
in Egypt. 

B 2 



EL BEESHBH. 



Sir Gardner Wilkinson's papers. 1 From this it 
would appear that not much attention was 
paid to detail, so that the drawings would not 
be of much importance for scenes of which 
other records exist. 

Many of the great groups of tombs in Egypt 
are situated in conspicuous places. That of 
El Bersheh is not so easy to find ; hence it is 
seldom mentioned in books of travel and 
antiquarian research. Neither Caillaud, nor 
Wilkinson in his early publications, nor Burton, 
nor Champollion, has left any independent 
record of it. Rosellini, however, the head 
of the Tuscan expedition and a companion of 
Champollion in most of his journey, published 
the scene of the colossus on a sledge in 1832, 2 
from a drawing by Dr. Eicci, one of his col- 
leagues ; but it is certain that Champollion 
never saw it. 

In 1833 Bono mi and Arundale were sent by 
Robert Hay of Linplum, then living in Egypt, 
to make a plan and drawings of the tomb of 
the colossus, and the following unpublished 
letter from Bonomi to Hay, referring to this 
visit, is preserved amongst the Hay manuscripts 
in the British Museum. 3 

" Raramoun, July 2St/i, 1833. 
"My dear Sir, 

" We arrived here on the morning of the 26th, 
and after visiting Sig. Antonini, 4 went in search of the 
tomb, which we easily found, but in a very different 
state to what it was when I saw it before, 5 holes having 
been picked in the walls, and a considerable part of the 
rest nearly obliterated by the rain getting in ; however, 
by dint of scraping and sponging we have succeeded in 



getting the principal part of the subject of greatest 

interest Mr. Arundale has made a plan and 

sections, in which will be seen the situation of the 

subjects. 

" Yours, etc., 

" J. Bonomi." 
The drawings mentioned in this letter are 
still preserved. 6 They comprise a plan and a 
longitudinal section of the tomb by Arundale, 7 
the latter showing the disposition of the 
scenes ; pencil drawings to a very small scale 
of the inner walls of both the inner and outer 
chambers; 8 a copy of the inscription behind 
the colossus scene; 9 the colossus itself, partly 
in colour; 10 and the doorway of the building 
towards which the statue was being dragged. 11 
Five years later, in December, 1838, Nestor 
de l'Hote gave, in one of his letters, 12 a brief 
description of the tomb, and probably copied 
several of the scenes, but unfortunately the 
greater part of his drawings and squeezes were 
lost at sea. In 1841, however, he again visited 
Egypt and the tombs at El Bersheh. He then 
made a number of useful notes upon this tomb, 
which are preserved among his manuscripts in 
the Bibliotheque Nationale in Paris. 13 



1 Apparently a lithograph of this drawing was circulated 
by Mr. Bankes ; it was utilised by Sir Gardner Wilkinson 
in his Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, 1837, 
p. 328, as well as in the later edition, and in the com- 
mentary to Rawlinson's translation of Herodotus. 

2 Rosellini, I Monumenti delV Egitto e delta Nubia, Mon. 
Civili, torn, ii., tav. xlviii. 1 ; text, torn, ii., p. 246. 

3 Add. MS. 29,859, fol. 30. 

4 The successor of Mr. Brine, who is referred to above, 

p. 3. 

5 Bonomi had lived in Egypt since 1824. 



6 Add. MS. 29,814. ' Ibid., fol. 3 and 4 ; our pi. ii. 

8 Ibid., fol. 5 ; our pis. viii., ix., and xx. 

9 Ibid., fol. 7 ; our pi. xiv. l0 Ibid., fol. 8 ; our pi. xv. 

11 Ibid., fol. 6 ; our pi. xvi. 

12 Lettres ecrites de I'Egypfe, p. 46-50. On p. 47 is an 
extract from the inscription with titles of Tehutihetep from 
the thickness of the wall printed on p. 15 of our memoir, 
and the names of his sons, Usertsen-ankh and Nehera, from 
the since-destroyed upper left-hand corner, in our pi. x. ; 
and on p. 48 Tehutihetep fowling with the throw-stick, 
accompanied by his three sons (our pi. viii.). The legends 
accompanying the sons in this scene have also recently been 
cut away, no doubt in order to obtain the cartouche. 

13 Papiers de Nestor de VHdte, tomes iii. and xi. (copied 
by the editor in 1888). 

Vol. iii., fols. 246-267, gives a brief but orderly descrip- 
tion of the tomb, with slight extracts from the subjects. 
Fols. 246-7, the shrine, especially the inscriptions on the 
back wall (our pi. xxxiii.). In the succeeding folios are 
notes of the main chamber, including on fol. 250 the 
inscription on the ceiling (our pi. vi.). Fol. 248, the 
right-hand side of the inner wall (our pi. xx.). Fol. 249, 
inscriptions on the right-hand jamb of the portico (oar 



PREVIOUS WORK AT THE TOMB. 



In 1837 Wilkinson published a drawing of 
the colossus on a sledge in his Manners and 
Customs of the Ancient Egyptians, 1 the source 
of which was Mr. Bankes' lithograph. He had 
searched for the tomb, but had failed to find 
it, 2 and it was not until 1841 that he arrived 
at the spot. Some valuable sketches made on 
this occasion are preserved among his papers 
at Oalke Abbey, Derbyshire, and copies of 
them were made last year for our use. 3 

The Prussian expedition under Lepsius 
visited the tomb in July, 1843, 4 and several 
subjects were selected for copying, including, 
of course, the colossus on a sledge. 5 



pi. v.). Fol. 253, inscriptions on the doorway to the 
temple (our pi. xvi.). Fol. 254, the long inscription behind 
the colossus (our pi. xiv.), together with part of the large 
figure of Tehutihetep following, and the remains of the line 
of inscription containing his titles (see p. 17). Fol. 255, 
the scene of purification, with the inscriptions (our pi. x.). 
Fols. 264-267, description of the tomb, with notes of the 
inscriptions, including a slight sketch to show the restora- 
tion of the plan : strange to say, although he states that 
no trace remains of the columns, he recognizes that they 
must have existed : the inscription on the thickness of the 
wall (see p. 15), and the names of the sons from the scene 
of spearing fish (our pi. ix.), now partly destroyed, are also 
given. 

Vol. xi., p. 25, scene of the colossus, with inscriptions. 

1 Vol. iii., p. 328 ; a second edition in 1847. 

2 Modem Egypt and Thebes, vol. ii., pp. 64, 65. 

3 These drawings of Wilkinson are bound up with other 
large ones, chiefly of a very early date, but with some later ones 
inserted, and the volume is labelled " Egyptian Sculpture." 
Between fols. 2 and 3 are a number of added leaves, the 
first (a) with the scene of dragging the colossus (coloured), 
and some of the inscriptions on the back. On the second 
leaf (b) is a coloured copy of the portion of the right-hand 
wall still standing, including the gardening scene, &c, in 
our pis. xxv.-xxvi., but without the top row. On the third 
leaf (c) are some fragments of inscriptions from the same 
tomb, and on the fourth (d) the inscriptions of the colossus 
scene (our pi. xv.). 

4 Lepsius' Letters from Egypt, No. 15. 

5 Published in the Denkmdler, Abth. ii., Bl. 134, 135. Bl. 
134, drawn by E. Weidenbach. (a) Scene of the colossus 
on a sledge, without the short inscriptions, but with the 
long inscription behind it. (b) Tehutihetep seated in the 
seh, our pi. xix. (c) The inscriptions on the back wall of 
the shrine, our pi. xxxiii. (d) The large standing figure of 
Tehutihetep, in our pi. xx. ; and (e) Another of the same 



Since Sir Gardner Wilkinson's visit in 1850 
hardly anything appears to have been done 
in the way of preserving the inscriptions. 6 

There is, however, one exception. Major 
Brown, of the Egyptian Irrigation Department, 
took a photograph of the scene of the colossus 
on a sledge in 1889. Of this one print was 
taken, which Major Brown kindly gave us, but 
the negative itself is lost. 7 

Then came the destroyer. The year after 
Major Brown took his photograph, the im- 
portant inscription behind the colossus was 
cut away, and many other parts of the tomb 
were wantonly injured. Thus the scenes 
which decorated its walls for so many cen- 
turies, and withstood the shock of the earth- 
quake, had just undergone the most grievous 
mutilation, when, in November 1891, our survey 
party reached Bl Bersheh. The expedition 
sent hither to rescue some of the most important 
records of ancient Egypt from oblivion was 
just too late to effect much of what was pur- 
posed, yet not too late to save a great deal 
that was valuable from its impending fate. 

Fortunately, the copies of Lepsius, Hay, 
Nestor de l'Hote, and Wilkinson, enable us 
to restore much of what has been recently 
destroyed, and the present volume will show 
that a goodly harvest has been gathered from 
this tomb. 



from the hunting scene, our pi. vii. b, d, and e were selected 
no doubt to illustrate the costume. 

Bl. 135, drawn by'Eirund. (a, b, c, d) Inscription on the 
"gateway" on the west wall, our pi. xvi. (e) Part of the 
title of Kay from the right-hand wall of the shrine, our 
pi. xxxiv. (/) The inscription belonging to the figure of 
Nub-unut from the back wall of the inner chamber, our 
pi. xx. (g) The inscription with royal names, from the right- 
hand jamb of the portico, our pi. v. 

6 We are pleased to hear from Dr. Spiegelberg that some 
copies probably exist at Strassburg among the papers of the 
indefatigable Professor Diimichen, whose recent loss we so 
much deplore. 

1 The print has been re-photographed, in order to preserve 
the record, and copies can be obtained on application to the 
Secretary, Egypt Exploration Fund. 



EL BERSHEH. 



3. THE NOMARCH TEHUTIHBTEP 
AND HIS FAMILY. 

As is so often the case with Egyptian tombs, 
the inscriptions in that of Tehutihetep throw 
but little light upon the owner's life and descent. 
Regarding the earlier history of his family, a 
good deal of information can be gleaned from 
inscriptions in other tombs at El Bersheh, 1 and 
from the valuable collection of hieratic records 
recently copied in the quarries of Het-nub and 
published by Messrs. Blackden and Fraser; 2 
but, as Tehutihetep himself is not referred to in 
any of them, it will be best to defer the con- 
sideration of this part of the subject until the 
inscriptions of the other tombs are published. 
For the present therefore we shall confine 
ourselves to those facts regarding Tehutihetep 
and his parentage and family that are recorded 
in the inscriptions of his own tomb. 

On the jambs of the facade were four in- 
scriptions, which were intended to give in a 
very succinct form the main landmarks in 
Tehutihetep's life ; unfortunately, they are 
badly mutilated. The first tells that the 
prince Tehutihetep had been "a child of the 
king," under Amenemhat II. At Beni Hasan, 
likewise, Khnemhetep had been " a child of the 
king, of his briuging up," 3 and this shows what 
the meaning of the phrase is here, namely, that 
Tehutihetep had been educated in the palace 
with the royal children of Amenemhat II. Next, 
two of the inscriptions refer to Usertsen II., 
who reigned nineteen years. In one we find 
that Tehutihetep held the high position of 
" sole royal friend " under this king ; on the 
other only the royal name is recognisable, but 
the inscription must have recorded some ad- 
vancement. It is impossible to decide which of 
these two inscriptions took the second or the 



1 To be published in El Bersheh, Part II. 

2 Collection of Hieratic Graffiti from the Alabaster Quarry 
of Hat-Nub (London, Luzac). 

3 Compare Beni Hasan, Part I, pi. xxxii., and Part II., 
p. 10. 



third place in point of time. Lastly, the fourth 
inscription names Usertsen III.; but the indica- 
tion of Tehutihetep's rank at this time is again 
destroyed. "We may fairly believe that it was 
in the course of this long reign of over thirty 
years that Tehutihetep died and was buried, 
having seen the rule of three kings; but he 
may have survived into the reign of Amenem- 
hat III. 4 

This is all that we possess of the chronology 
of Tehutihetep's life. His titles are very fully 
recorded elsewhere in the tomb. Most of them 
are to be found on pi. xvi. The civil ones 
are: — 

1. Er-pd, " .EVya-prince." 

2. Ha, " ffa-prince." 

3. Sahu bdti, "Treasurer of the King of Lower 
Egypt." 

4. Semer udti, " Confidential friend of the King." 

5. Bekh seten, " Royal acquaintance." 

6. her tep da en Unt, " Great Chief of the Hare 
nome." 

7. a set neb, " Gate of every foreign country." 

8. Sab-ad-mer Bep , " of Buto." 

9. her tep dat Mentet, " Chief of high offices." 

10. her tep NeMeb, " Chief of the city of Nekheb." 

11. dri Nekhen, " He who belongs to the city of 
Nekhen." 

12. khu ne dm aha, " Comptroller of what is in the 
palace" (?). 

The most remarkable of these are No. 6, 
the title of the nomarch of the Hare nome, 
and No. 7, which perhaps means that Tehuti- 
hetep had the right to give passports over all 
the frontiers of Egypt. Those numbered 1-5 
and 8-11 were commonly held by the great 
men of the period. 

The religious titles were very numerous; 
they are : — 

1. mer henu neter, " Superintendent of the priests." 

2. JJr dua em per Zehuti, " Great of five in the 
temple of Tehuti." (With variant hut for per on p. 16.) 

4 The united reigns of Amenemhat II., Usertesen II., and 
Usertesen III., would amount to about seventy-five years, 
allowing for co-regency. 



THE NOMAECH TEHUTIHETEP AND HIS FAMILY. 



3. Merp nesti, "Regulator of the two thrones.". 

4. her [se]-sheta ne reu pern, " Set over the mysteries 
of the temples." 

5. her [se~\sheta ne neter em est zesert, " Set over 
the mysteries of the god in sacred places." 

6. her se-sheta ne medu neter, "Set over the mysteries 
of the divine formulse." 

7. her se-sheta ne Met neter, "Set over the mysteries 
of the divine secrets." 

8. Merp hetep neter, " Manager of the divine offerings." 

9. Mer heb her tep, " Chief lector." 

10. sem Merp shenzet nebt, " $em-master of all the 
tunics." 

11. SeMem neteru, "Who influences the gods." 

12. Merp hut net Net, "Regulator of the temples of 
Net." " 

13. hen neter Maat, " Priest of Maat." 

By far the most interesting of these are the 
two numbered 2 and 3, which are the titles of 
the high priest of Thoth at Hermopolis. 1 Some 
of those numbered 4-7 are not uncommon ; but 
as held by the high priest of Thoth, the god 
of wisdom, the scribe and recorder of the gods, 
they have a special significance. The rest of 
the titles are such as were often borne by the 
heads of great families. 

Of the events of Tehutihetep's life, or of 
his personal character, we know scarcely any- 
thing. The scenes in the tomb are mostly of 
the ordinary type of the period. All the 
nomarchs were devoted to hunting, fishing, 
and fowling, and took delight in the excellence 
of their gardens and farm-yards. The quality 
of the sculpture and the loving detail in the 
gardening and other scenes indicate, perhaps, 
some special characteristics of Tehutihetep, 
and the great scene of the conveyance of the 
colossus is probably a record of an act un- 
rivalled by any of his contemporaries. 

As to Tehutihetep's family, his paternal 
grandfather ® l] Nehera is named once/ 



1 Compare Brugsch's Diet. Geogr., 1361. 

2 Vide pi. xxxiv., and cf. p. 39. 



and the inscriptions on the inner wall of the 
shrine, in recording that Tehutihetep succeeded 
to the princedom held by his paternal grand- 
father, imply that he was Great Chief of the 
Hare nome. We shall have more to say 
about Nehera in the second part of this 
memoir. 

The names of \J I (jA Kay, 3 Tehutihetep's 
father, and ^^° ^ U* Sat-kheper-ka, his 
mother, are several times found in the inscrip- 
tions, but only the chief titles of the former 
are recorded. He was " /^-prince of the city 
of the pyramid called Jcha of Usertsen," 5 and a 

3 Vide pis. vi., x., xvi., &c. 

4 Vide pis. v., vi., &c. The name is also written 

^JSU pis. vi., viii., &c 

5 As there were three Usertsens in this dynasty, and as the 
names of their respective pyramids, with one exception, are 
either uncertain or unknown, it is necessary to consider to 
which of them this pyramid kha belonged. It has hitherto 
been attributed to Usertsen II., apparently on the sole 
ground that, while it occurred in the tomb of Tehutihetep, 
his was the latest cartouche known from thence. But our 
clearance of the facade revealed the name of his successor, 
Usertsen III. ; so that the argument as it stood can no 
longer be sustained. Yet it is not very likely that the 
pyramid was that of Usertsen III., since the father of 
Tehutihetep, if he yet lived, probably reached a patriarchal 
age early in the reign of that king. 

The only other evidence with regard to the names of the 
pyramids referred to comes from Prof. Flinders Petrie's 
discoveries at Kahun. It will be recollected that the town 
of Kahun was built in connection with the pyramid of 
Usertsen II., commonly known as the Illahun pyramid, and 
that on its site were found numerous papyri and seals from 
other documents now destroyed. Several of the seals name 
princes of the city of the pyramid called Hetep- Usertsen 
(vide Prof. Petrie's Kahun, Hawara, and Gurob, pi. x., 
Nbs. 21-24). The same locality is also frequently named 
in the papyri, and it cannot be questioned that this was the 
name of the pyramid city of Usertsen II. Can, then, the 
pyramid of Usertsen II. have had two names, hetep and 
khal In one or two papyri from Kahun the hetep of 
Usertsen and the kha of Usertsen are mentioned together ; 
it is thus just possible that they are the names of two 
localities connected with the same pyramid. 

Lastly, we know nothing about the name of the pyramid 
of Usertsen I. 

The identification of the £7ia-pyramid is therefore a 
matter of extreme uncertainty. 



EL BBKSHEH. 



"superintendent of the priests." 1 So far as 
we can tell, bis exalted office took him away 
from the Hare nome, so that he did not hold 
the princedom which his father Nehera had 
held. We may suppose, also, that his tomb was 
not at El Bersheh, but perhaps at the royal 
city of Memphis; and it is probable that for 
this reason Tehutihetep commemorated him, 
together with himself, in the shrine of his own 
tomb as with a cenotaph. Of the titles and 
parentage of Sat-kheper-ka nothing is known, 
the inscription (over her portrait on the right- 
hand wall), 2 which may have recorded them, 
being lost. 

The name of Tehutihetep' s wife 
Hathor-hetep occurs three times, 
parentage is not given. She was a hen-neter 
Eether, " priestess of Hathor," and a nebt per, 
"lady of the house." Next to her, in the 
scene representing the female relatives of 
Tehutihetep on the right-hand wall, are two 
smaller figures of women, who may have been 

Nehera = 

(Great Chief of the Hare nome) 



but 



^ D 
her 



his concubines, the title "p ^ ^ anMeL which 
is preserved with one of them, being of un- 
certain meaning. 3 

His children were eight in number — three 
sons and five daughters. Of the sons 
^ % lbs. S ^* L& - Shemsu-em-khau-ef was 
the eldest; his portrait is given several times 
in the wall-paintings. The two younger ones 
were named (1 P T H] "f IT Usertsen-ankh 
and ~<r Nehera. Of the five daughters 
the names of the three eldest only are pre- 
served. These were (^ ^ ? Nub-unut, 
* D U Sat-kheper-ka, and n^J^ | 



^ D 

Sat-hez-hetep. Mutilated portraits of the two 
youngest, and apparently portraits of two 
sisters of Tehutihetep, are found among those 
of his female relatives on the right-hand wall 
of the inner chamber. 

The relationships recorded above may be 
tabulated thus : — 



Kay = 

(/fa-prince of the Ma-pyramid 
city of Usertsen) 



Sat-kheper-ka * 



The ankhet (concubine ?) 

Tehuti-hetep* = Tehutihetep 

(Great Chief of the Hare nome) 



= Hathorhetep * 



Two sisters 



Shemsu-eLkhau-ef Usertsen-ankh Nehera Nub-unut* Sat-kheper-ka* Sat-hez-hetep* Two other daughters 



1 Vide pi. xxxiv. 

3 A slight correction of the original into -^ 

" female citizen " (?) or perhaps " courtesan," 



2 Vide pi. xxviii., and cf. p. 36. 
would produce the known female title ankh-en-net, meaning 
* Female. 



II. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB, 



AND 



EXPLANATION OE THE SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS. 



1. ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES. 

See Plates II.-IV. 

In spite of the injury done by the earthquake, 
which completely ruined the front part of the 
tomb, its original plan can be restored with 
certainty. It was as follows :— 

(1) A deep portico, supported by two 

columns, with palm-leaf capitals. 

(2) A rectangular main chamber. 

(3) A small shrine beyond. 

(4) A shaft or gallery for the mummy, 

driven horizontally below the chambers. 

1. The cliff has been trimmed back only a 
few feet for the facade. The excavation for the 
portico was broad and high (nearly 23 feet by 
15 feet), leaving only a very narrow band of 
faced rock, about 9 inches at the top and about 
2 feet at the sides. 

The depth of the portico from front to 
back was 14 feet. A massive architrave of 
square section crossed the roof at about 
2 feet from the front, and was supported by 
two columns of circular section with broad 
circular bases and palm -leaf capitals (for 
details see pi. iv.). In these columns the shaft 
tapers upwards ; at the base it is 26 inches in 
diameter, at the top 21^ inches. The leaves 
forming the capital spring from four annulets ; 
these probably represent a cord which bound 
the leaves together, but the ends of the ties in 
this instance are not shown, so that they can 
only be described as annulets. The columns 



were surmounted by shallow square abaci, 
upon which the architrave rested. The base is 
4 feet 8£ inches in diameter at the bottom, and 
6 inches high ; its sides slope and the top 
edge is rounded. 

The depth of the portico behind the abacus 
is nearly 10 feet, and we have called this space 
" the Outer Chamber " in the plates and in the 
detailed description of the scenes. The ceiling 
is flat. In the centre of the back wall is a 
doorway 10£ feet high by 4 feet wide, the 
threshold of which is raised about 6 inches. 
The architrave of the door projects about an 
inch. The entrance was closed by a door 
pivoted on the right side. The thickness of 
the wall is nearly 5 feet. 

2. The main chamber, or as we have called 
it in the plates, &c, " the Inner Chamber," was 
rectangular, measuring 20 feet broad by nearly 
26 feet deep and 13 feet high, with flat 

ceiling. 

3. At the middle of the back wall a flight of 
three low steps leads into a shrine, which was 
closed by double doors, the pivot holes for 
which remain at each side. The shrine itself 
is slightly narrower than this doorway, and 
hardly exceeds 4 feet in width. Its depth and 
height alike are 8 J feet. 

4. In front of the left-hand jamb of the 
portico is a rectangular pit, 11 feet by 6 feet in 
length and breadth. It descends vertically 9 
feet. From its northern side runs a horizontal 
gallery, 1\ feet high and 5£ feet broad, beneath 
the left-hand wall of the tomb ; where a part of 



10 



EL BER6HEH. 



its breadth lay directly beneath the floor of the 
chamber, the latter was only a little over 3 feet 
thick. The gallery terminated at 55 feet, and 
was consequently driven in slightly beyond the 
shrine. The latter, being of small dimensions, 
left the tomb constructor ample space, as soon 
as the gallery had been carried beyond the end 
of the main chamber, to make an extension or 
niche on the east side of the gallery in the 
direction of the shrine, perhaps for the recep- 
tion of the coffin or its furniture. The depth 
of the niche was 2^ feet, and its height was 
not more than half that of the gallery itself. 
In the middle of the gallery at this spot was a 
small square excavation in the floor, which 
perhaps was intended to receive part of the 
funeral outfit. 

Present Condition. 
The principal injuries to the architectural 
features of the tomb are due to the earth- 
quake, which drove the upper strata in the 
tomb south-westward ; the columns were dis- 
placed, and the whole mass of rock over the 
portico, including its painted ceiling, has fallen 
down in a confused heap. The right-hand 
wall is fairly perfect, excepting at the top, 
where the movement of the strata has shat- 
tered it. 

The left-hand wall has been almost quarried 

away. It seems probable that this had been 

done before the earthquake took place, as the 

quarrymen did not remove any part of the 

fallen rock. The mass of rock forming the 

back wall of the portico and front wall of the 

main chamber has been cracked in several 

places, and driven outwards. The side walls 

have also been cracked, and great masses 

have detached themselves from the right-hand 

wall, and lie in confusion on the floor, while 

here also the tops of the walls have been 

shattered. The shrine is practically uninjured 

as far as architectural features are concerned. 

The clever concealment of the mummy-pit 



must have exercised many would-be violators of 
the tomb. On the arrival of the expedition it 
was found that in the main chamber pits had 
been dug in four places through the debris 
and into the solid rock; probably some of 
these pits date from very ancient times. One 
great hole in the axis of the chamber had 
been extended right and left until it touched 
the lower gallery ; probably the tomb chamber 
was robbed through this forced entrance. It 
was utilised by the expedition in clearing the 
mummy-pit, working from it first to the inner 
end and then outwards to the ancient entrance, 
which had probably been hidden for many 
centuries. 

The greater part of the debris in the tomb 
was successfully cleared, and its nature ascer- 
tained; the rubbish was thrown outside, and 
the sculptured and painted fragments sorted. 
Only a few large blocks had to be examined 
without being raised or moved. Of the columns, 
the bases were found in situ ; portions of the 
capitals still clung to the fallen and ruined 
architrave, and the shafts lay shattered amongst 
the debris. 



2. SYSTEM OF DECORATION. 

The decoration of the tomb is as usual con- 
fined to the upper chambers, and consists of 
(1) painting applied to the limestone, the 
surface of which had been finely prepared for 
its reception with a very thin coating or wash 
of stucco, and (2) sculpture in very low relief ; 
but in some cases the two methods were 
combined. 

The jambs and lintel of the facade and the 
columns and architrave of the portico were 
painted pink (see pi. iv.) and marbled with 
pale green in order to resemble rose granite. 
The hieroglyphic inscriptions upon the jambs 
and architrave were incised and painted green 
(see pi. iv.). 



SYSTEM OF DECORATION. 



11 




Fig. 1. 



The ceiling of the portico was richly painted 
up to the edges with 
yellow quatrefoils upon a 
blue ground (see fig. 1), 
and across the centre 
of it ran transversely a 
yellow band, in which 
the hieroglyphs given in 
pi. vi. were incised and coloured blue. 

The hheker frieze of the outer chamber is 
almost entirely destroyed. It was painted only. 
The scenes below were sculptured in very low 
relief, and probably were painted, though no 
trace of colouring can now be distinguished. 
The hieroglyphs around the doorway were 
incised. The inner surfaces of the jambs of 
the doorway to the main chamber were pro- 
bably coloured pink, like the architrave and 
columns. The large hieroglyphs incised upon 
them were painted green. The whole of the 
thickness of the wall from the inside of the 
jamb to the surface of the outer wall of the 
main chamber was decorated with horizontal 
bands of blue, red, yellow, and green, about 
3 inches wide, separated from each other by 
black lines, each \ inch wide. 

The ceiling of the inner chamber was deco- 
rated similarly to that of the portico, except 
that the narrow yellow band was painted longi- 
tudinally down the centre of the ceiling. The 
hieroglyphs upon this band were painted blue 
(see pi. vi.). In the centre of the ceiling there 
is a rectangular space of a different pattern, 
crossed by the beam and bordered by a black 
line. This space is filled with a black and 
yellow check pattern (see diagram of ceiling, 
fig. 2). 



YELLOW Ql/ATPEFOILS UPON * 


BLUE GROUND 




SMALL BLACK 

ANO 
YELLOW SQUARES 




BL,UE HIEROCLVPI- 




SMALL BLACK 
AND 

YELLOW SQUARES 




YELLOW QUAT 


RETAILS UPON / 


i BLUC GROUND 



Fig. 2. 




Fig. 3. 



BLACK 



Fig. 4 



The frieze consisted of the usual Jcheker 
ornament painted red, blue and green (see 
fig. 3). Beneath this and at the 
sides of the walls is a border of 
coloured rectangles (yellow, blue, 
red and green), separated by black 
lines enclosing a white line. Be- 
yond this is the peculiar roped pattern so 
common in old Egyptian tombs. 

The dado is painted black, and is 
bordered above by narrow bands of 
red and yellow (see fig. 4). At the 
right-hand end of the dado of the 
left-hand wall was a false door, now 
much mutilated. 

The inner surfaces of the jambs of 
the doorway to the shrine are painted, 
like the jambs of the outer doorway, with 
horizontal bands of colour. The bands here 
are blue and yellow, separated by black lines. 

The ceiling is coloured blue and covered 
with yellow quatrefoils as in the other 
chambers, but here the quatrefoils are much 
smaller (see fig. 2); they measure 2\ inches 
across. Longitudinally down the middle of the 
ceiling is painted a narrow yellow band, upon 
which are hieroglyphs (see pi. vi.) ; they are 
incised and coloured blue. 

The frieze consists of small khekers, and 
beneath them is the usual border of coloured 
rectangles. 

The dado is painted black. 
The style of painting is uniform throughout 
the tomb, and the paintings are everywhere 
very carefully executed. The human figure (for 
a specimen see frontispiece) is always conven- 
tionally drawn according to the standards of 
proportion in vogue at the period. The quadru- 
peds are somewhat stiffly outlined ; but the birds 
and fishes, especially those on the inner wall of 
the main chamber, are beyond praise. The 
hieroglyphs on the left-hand and inner walls of 
the main chamber, and in the shrine, are very 
elaborately executed, and much attention has 
been paid to matters of the minutest detail. 



12 



EL BERSHEH. 




Fig. 5.— Key Plan to Scenes and Inscriptions. 



3. FAQADE, &o. Pl. V. 

Jambs of the Facade (see Key Plan, a-d). 

The mutilated inscriptions show curious 
dovetailing of the titles of the kings under whom 
Tehutihetep lived with those of Tehutihetep 
himself. Wishing evidently to put the royal 
titles prominently before the visitor, Tehuti- 
hetep placed at the top of each column the 
lea-name of the king, surmounted by the hawk 
as usual, thus at once giving a decorative 
appearance to the inscription. By another 
device possible in hieroglyphics he contrived 
to separate the cartouche from the k-name (to 
which the sense of the inscription would attacli 
it), so that the cartouches appeared together 
near the base of the columns, forming a second 
well-defined group of signs. In translating we 
probably have to take the k-name and the 
cartouche together in the middle of the in- 
scription. On the inside of the right jamb 
we propose to read : — 

[Amakhy] khred seten kher Heru kehen em maat 
(Neb-kau-RcT\ ha ur dua Zehutihetep 

" [The devoted one,] the king's son 1 under the hawk 
praised (?) in truth Nub-kau-ra (Amenemhat II.), 
the Zio-prince, great of five, Tehutihetep." : 



1 See Beni Hasan, Part I., pl. xxxi. 

* For the reading Tehutihetep, see note on p. 1 . 



On the outside of the same jamb a similar 
inscription records his faithful service as 
semer udti, " confidential friend," to the king 
Usertsen II. Tehutihetep is here called ha, 
"ha-prince," and kherp nesti, "regulator of 
the two thrones." 

The inscriptions on the opposite jambs 
follow the same formula?. The royal names 
of Usertsen II. on the inside and of Usertsen 
III. on the outside can still be recognised, but 
the central portions referring to the status of 
Tehutihetep in these reigns are completely 

destroyed. 

These are the only cartouches that have 
been found in the tomb, and it is very for- 
tunate that they should have been preserved 
at all in such an exposed situation. The 
fragments of the left-hand jamb, all of which 
were found by excavation, show that the hiero- 
glyphs here were incised and coloured green 
on a pink ground marbled with pale green 
to represent granite. 

Architrave (see Key Plan, e, f). 

The architrave is inscribed on the front 
and back, but not below ; the colouring is the 
same as that of the jambs (see pl. iv.). In 
the middle of both the front and back is the 
central word < 5 => er-pd, from which two almost 



SCENES, &c, OUTER CHAMBER. 



13 



identical inscriptions rim to right and left. On 

the front is : — 

Er-pa ha ur dua Zehutihetep mes en Sat-kheper-ka 
" The hereditary prince, the /ia-prince, great of five, 
Tehutihetep, born of Sat-kheper-ka." 

On the back is the same legend, with the 
variation of ft § Merp nesti, " regulator of the 
two thrones," for ^ E ur dua. 

It will be observed that the double title (ur 
dua, kherp nesti) of the high priest of Thoth is 
divided, and that the two elements alternate in 
these inscriptions. The " short" titles of nome 
princes usually combine the civil and the re- 
ligious, very often in the simple form ha, mer 
henu ncter, "/ia-prince and superintendent of 
the priests." 



4. OUTER CHAMBER. Pls. VI.-IX. 

Ceiling Inscription, pi. vi. (see Key Plan, a). 

The transverse inscriptions on the ceiling of 
the outer chamber are similarly arranged. The 
hieroglyphs are incised and painted blue on a 
yellow ground. The right half of the inscrip- 
tion names Tehutihetep's father Kay ; the left, 
his mother Sat-kheper-ka. He is described as 
her tep da en Tint, "great chief of the Hare 
Nome," and her sesheta en reu-pcru-es, " chief 
of the mysteries of its temples," &c. 

Right-hand Wall, pi. vii. (see Key Plan g). 

The hunting scene on the right-hand wall is 
very remarkable. Tehutihetep, leaning on a 
staff, is completely wrapped in a long blanket- 
like robe, leaving only his closely shaven head, 
his hands, and his sandalled feet visible. The 
garment is evidently intended to protect him 
against the cold breeze of the desert in the 
winter. This representation is probably unique. 
The inscription over him has lost four or 



five signs from the top of each line. It 
reads : — 

(1) [maa] ah hut set dsth asha urt er Met nebt 

(2) [an er-pa] ha sem kherp shenzet nebt sab ad mer 
Dep 

(3) [ ] her sesheta en maa ua 

(4) [ur dua] em per Zehuti ur qedet em perui mater (?) 

(5) [semd] nef semdu ensen kherp hetep neter 

(6) [semer ua ne me]rut dri Nekhen hen neter Maat 
dri (?) pe [neb] 

(7) ha her tep aa en Tint Zehutihetep neb dmakh 

(1) "[seeing] the netting of the gazelles 1 of the 
desert, behold ! abundant were they more than 
anything, 

(2) [by the erpa-prince], the foa-prince, the sem- 
master of all the tunics, the sab-ad-mer of the city 
of Dep (Buto in the Delta), 

(3) [ ] chief of the mysteries of seeing alone, 

(4) [great of five] in the house of Tehuti in the 

two houses 

(5) one who received reports from those who received 
reports, 2 manager of the divine offerings, 

(6) [confidential friend] of the (king's) choice, he 
who belongs to the city of Nekhen, priest of Maat 
(goddess of truth) 

(7) the /^-prince, great chief of the Hare Nome, 
Tehutihetep, possessing the reward of worth." 

In front of Tehutihetep we see two parallel 
lines of netting (placed upright on the wall), 
one end being closed by poles, and a cord or 
scare put in place by the huntsmen ; the other 
end at the top of the wall is destroyed. The 
enclosed space is filled with sculptured details 
representing the surface of the desert covered 
with bushes, wild animals, and huntsmen. The 
Egyptian draughtsman has arranged them all 
in distinct rows, one above the other; seven of 
these remain, while one or two at the top have 
been destroyed. 

Among the huntsmen are depicted the three 



1 The determinatives are figures of the oryx, the ibex, 
and the common gazelle. 

2 Literally, "one to whom those-who-were-reported-to 
reported ;" he was so high an official, that officers, who re- 
ceived reports from subordinates, themselves had to report 
to him. 



14 



EL BERSHEH. 



sons of Tehutihetep, with their names, Shernsu- 
em-khau-ef, Usertsen-ankh and Nehera, shoot- 
ing arrows. It is much to be deplored that 
the colours have entirely gone from this 
interesting sculpture, and that it has been 
much injured in other ways ; yet what remains 
of it is very intelligible. 

In the top row we see a man armed with 
bow and quiver advancing from the left 
towards a galloping animal (bubale?) accom- 
panied by its calf, while a man crouching on 
the ground appears to be securing the end of 
a bolas or lasso to a stout peg by a slip-knot. 
The bolas has no doubt caught the horn of the 
animal, the upper part of which is destroyed. 
The legs of numerous animals are seen behind. 
At the right-hand end of the row an archer 
pursues a bubale (?) to the fence. Just below 
is a row of bushes, with a hare crouching. 

In the next row on the left are two oryxes, 
and a man pulling at a bolas which has pro- 
bably caught the hind leg of one of them ; 
then six bubales and a calf ; and a man whirl- 
ing his lasso round his head to cast at a large 
animal already noosed by another huntsman 
at the end of the row. The last has foreign 
features, with pointed beard and long hair, 
and wears only a very narrow girdle ; doubt- 
less he is a Bedawi huntsman of the desert. 

In the third row is an archer shooting at two 
ibexes accompanied by a young one. Behind 
them is a hillock, up which climbs a porcupine. 
Beyond is a leopard, then a gazelle, and below 
a bubale with calf and three addaxes (?). 

In the fourth row Shemsu-em-khau-ef with 
his bow and quiver, find with spare arrows in 
his hand, shoots at a herd of oryxes. On the 
other side of the fracture there is a lion, a hare 
and a jackal ; then two ostriches, and a man 
perhaps driving them. 

The next row is much injured. On the 
right are Usertsen-ankh and Nehera shooting 
at a large antelope, above the fore-legs of which 
remain the hind-legs and tail of a little jerboa. 



In the sixth row are the heads of four stags 
or fallow deer, nobly posed, and other game; 
we can also see the characteristic curled tail of 
an Egyptian hound. 

In the bottom row men are setting up posts 
and driving back large wild oxen 1 with staves. 
They wear ostrich feathers in their hair, like 
the Egyptian soldiers. 

Left-hand Wall (see Key Plan, k). 

The wall on the left-hand side is completely 
destroyed. We may conjecture that the subject 
was a scene of wrestling and fighting corre- 
sponding to the hunting scene on the opposite 
side. 

Inner Wall, right side, pi. viii. (see Key 
Plan, h). 

Tehutihetep, wearing a collar, a fillet round 
the head and a short tunic, is in a canoe, 
fowling with a throw-stick. Two women, pre- 
sumably his wife and daughter, are with him in 
the boat, and behind him were his three sons 
and an attendant holding a large shield. The 
papyrus clump which must have occupied the 
space between the end of the boat and the 
right jamb of the door has entirely disap- 
peared, probably owing to its having been only 
painted, not sculptured. Similarly the water 
on which the canoe floats is represented only 
by a blank space. The same is the case with 
the water in the next narrow band below, in 
which are sculptured three boats laden with 
papyrus, &c. ; in two of them, as often, the 
boatmen are represented sparring; the third 
boat is almost entirely destroyed. 

The inscription, in eight vertical lines, above 



1 These oxen closely resembling the domestic breeds are 
also seen in Beni Hasan, Part I., pis. xiii. and xxx., Part II., 
pis. iv. and xiii., as well as in paintings of the XVIIIth 
Dynasty. It has been the custom to identify them with 
various large species of antelopes, but the excellent sculpture 
at El Bersheh excludes this idea. 



INNER CHAMBER, OUTER WALL. 



15 



Tehutihetep's head relates to the hamu en apdu 
an er-pd, " catching of wild-fowl by the erpa- 
prince, Tehutihetep." 

In the last row are men bringing offerings of 
the products of the marshes — wild-fowl, lotus- 
flowers, &c. 

Inner Wall, left side, pi. ix. (see Key Plan j). 

On the other half of the wall beyond the 
doorway, Tehutihetep stands in a canoe, spear- 
ing fish. His dress is nearly the same as 
in the picture just described, but he wears a 
different waist-cloth. The harpoon is poised 
in his hands ; the right-hand edge of the 
picture is destroyed, but usually in these scenes 
the harpoon has a double point, on which are 
transfixed two fishes. A female relative kneels 
in the middle of the boat, and another stands 
holding a spare harpoon. In the field behind 
are the figures of the three sons ; the top 
left-hand corner is broken away. The water 
beneath is full of fish and blue and white 
lotuses. Over Tehutihetep's head is : — 

\_kkens~\ seMet seshu pehu meru an er-ph 

ha seiner uati en merut dri NeMen Zehuti-hetep 

sab ad mer k/iu-a k/ierp did neb netert 

ur dua Kay sa Zehuti-hetep ha. mer henu neter 

Zehutihetep dr en Sat-Meper-ka neb dmakh 

" Canoeing in the papyrus beds, the pools of wild- 
fowl, the marshes and the streams, by the erpa- 
prince, the ha -prince, he who belongs to Nekben, 

Tehutihetep. The sab-ad-mer , great of 

five, Kay's son Tehutihetep. The /m-prince, the 
superintendent of the priests, Tehutihetep, born of 
Sat-kheper-ka, possessing the reward of worth." 

Below this scene is another representing 
three boats laden. The inscriptions accom- 
panying them are fragmentary and difficult to 
translate. 

Inner Wall, centre, pi. ix. (see Key Plan i). 

The framing (technically "architrave") of the 
door reaches nearly to the ceiling, and the little 
space above was left blank. The framing itself 
is very much destroyed. Of the lintel a fragment 



of the right-hand end remains in situ. At the 
top of it two horizontal lines of inscription 
were incised, running in opposite directions. 
The first shows the beginning of a prayer to 
Anubis, the second the name of Tehutihetep at 
the end of the line. Below this are the remains 
of a figure. Two other pieces belonging to this 
lintel are given in pi. ix., 4 and 5, but the 
positions of these fragments are uncertain, and 
the restoration of the scene is therefore impos- 
sible. On each jamb are four vertical lines of 
hieroglyphs, terminated by a single horizontal 
line, giving the name and titles of Tehutihetep. 
Very little remains of all this. At the bottom 
of each jamb was a figure of Tehutihetep 
standing with a staff in his left hand and a 
hherp-sce])tre in his right hand. 

In the thickness of the wall are traces of a 
vertical line of inscription in large hieroglyphs 
as follows, repeated on each side : — 



~fes\ i=i <=> - *=^jr o d ^h 

Er-pa ha. sab ad mer ur dua Zehutihetep neb dmakh 

"The erpa-prinee, the Tia-prince, the sab-ad-mer, 
great of five, Tehutihetep, possessing the reward 
of worth." 



5. INNER CHAMBER, Pls. X.-XXXI. 

Outer Wall, right side, pi. x. (see Key Plan p). 

On the right-hand side of the front wall is a 
scene of ceremonial purification. 1 

On a plinth stands Tehutihetep with his 
arms to his sides, while two figures pour water 
over him. For this ceremony he wears a wig 
and false beard, a broad necklace and a short 
pleated tunic ; his feet are bare. His titles are 
above him. On each side of him are corre- 



1 Compare scenes of a similar character in Lepsius' Denlc- 
maler, Abth. ii., Bl. 65, tomb of Ra-shepses; ii. 104, 3, 
tomb of Ptah-hetep (Old Kingdom) ; and iii. 11, f., tomb of 
Reimi at El Kab (XVIIIth Dynasty). 



16 



EL BERSHEH. 



sponding figures, those on the right being much 
mutilated. In the copy by Nestor de l'Hote 
the names of the two top figures on the left 
are preserved. The first, who pours the water, 
is the second son of Tehutihetep, Usertsen- 
ankh ; the second, carrying a basket, is the 
third son, Nehera. On the other side we 
see that the eldest son, Shemsu-em-khau-ef, is 
carrying the vessel, but the figure pouring on 
this side is not named. The vessels contain 
cleansing materials, for on the left is the in- 
scription erdet bed-neter, " giving natron," but 
on the right the name of the substance is 
destroyed. 

In the next row on the left the kher heb 
Mehti (?)-em-hdt, " lector Mehti (?)-em-hat," 
reads from a roll : — 

zed medu da eh qesui-eh tern drt-eh 

<; saying : Be washed thy [limbs], thy hones, be com- 
pleted (?) what belongeth to thee." 

The corresponding compartment on the right 
is destroyed. The same is the case with the 
next row, where on the left there is a man 
bringing a curious spoon-like instrument, while 
a second carries a staff and a box. The latter 
is called a box of natron {hen en bed-neter). 

In the bottom row on the right a man carries 
a hen en...(?), "box of. ..(?)." On the left a 
similar figure brings a hen [en] hebsu udb, "box 
of clean clothes." 

The titles of Tehutihetep were very fully 
given, but are now much destroyed. In the 
last seven lines can be deciphered : — 



1 



^^ 






" lmiiiii 






^ *A U J: 



v-^j- 



^^S 






o D 



nn 






11! 1 



tin 

[ S3 AAAAAA 









o S 

AY ~1 



1 



U 

0© 



[mer upf] (1) ent hetep neter se-hetep neteru her- 
(2) es aa en set neb ur dua em hetu (3) Zehuti ent 
qema meh kherp hetep neter (4) her se-sheta en 

reu-peru hen neter en Khent- (5) hesert 

(6) her tep nekheb (7) [see plate] ha kherp 

nesti Kay sa Zehutihetep neb dmakh 

"[Superintendent of the distribution?] of the divine 
offerings, pacifying all the gods with them, the 
gate of every foreign country, great of five in the 
temples of Tehuti of the South and North, regu- 
lator of divine offerings, set over the mysteries 
of the temples, priest of Khent-hesert (Thoth) 

chief of the city of Nekheb, the ha- 

prince, regulator of the two thrones, Kay's son 
Tehutihetep, possessing the reward of worth." 

Outer Wall, left side, pi. xi. (see Key Plana). 

On the other side of the door is a corre- 
sponding scene, very much destroyed. Tehuti- 
hetep is fully clothed and wears sandals, but 
there is no trace of the usual staff ; priests and 
others are performing ceremonies before him. 
His titles are almost entirely destroyed. The 
subordinate figures seem to have been in four 
rows as before. At the left-hand end are his 
sons one above another, and the «<x&-priest 
Sebek-a-na. Immediately before his foot is 
the an hen Nekht-dnkh sa Sep, " scribe of the 
box, Nekht-ankh's son Sep." On the right 
all the upper figures are destroyed; the 
second from the bottom is dressed in a long 
tunic and holds up an egg-shaped object in 
his hand. He is perhaps named Tehutinekht 
ar en Sat-hez-hetep, " Tehutinekht, born of Sat- 
hez-hetep." The inscription in front of him is 
much mutilated, and ends — 

entiu dr as pen, " those who made this 

tomb." 

Before Tehutihetep' s feet a man pours water. 
The inscription in front reads — 

seth an hen-neter, " the priest cleanses." 

Another man carries a stick and a box. 

Left-hand Wall, pi. xii.-xix. (see Key Plan r). 

The left-hand wall of the inner chamber is 
divided into seven rows, forming two great 



TRANSPORT OF THE COLOSSUS. 



17 



scenes running from end to end. The uppermost 
is the famous scene of dragging a colossal 
statue, occupying five rows. The subject 
divides itself into the representation of — 
(1) Tehutihetep, with attendants, following the 
statue; (2) the inscription of thirteen lines 
describing the scene ; (3) the colossus dragged 
by rows of men ; (4) the temple or building to 
which it was brought, and the sacrifices made 
on the occasion. 

1. Tehutihetep, with attendants, following the 
statue (pi. xiii.). 

Tehutihetep, richly apparelled, is proceeding 
on foot. His head is closely shaven. He wears 
a loin-cloth, a long tunic, and over his shoulders 
a light cape, fastened above his waist ; on his 
breast is a broad necklace, and sandals are on 
his feet ; in his right hand is a | sceptre, 
painted with bands of colour, and the early 
copies by Hay and Nestor de l'Hote show the 
staff in his left hand, and in front of him a 
fragmentary line of titles in large characters. 
The staff and inscription are now both de- 
stroyed ; the inscription ran — 






v r^i2_ A-vwv\ 
<0 



® 



TTTl 



_=£> 



T 

•D © fl^f"^ D ^J 

[Er-pa ha] semer uati en merut her tep dat Mentet 
sekftem neteru [dripe neb ha Zehutihetep neb dmakli] 

"The erpa-prinee, the /m-prince, confidential friend 
of the (king's) choice, chief of the high offices, 
who influences the gods, he who helongs to every 
town, the /ia-prince, Tehutihetep, possessing the 
reward of worth." 

Behind him in the bottom row is an armed 
attendant carrying a battle-axe and with a 
peculiar garment (?) hanging at his back ; 
three spaces behind him are left blank, then 



Restored from the inscription on the right-hand jamb 
of the doorway to the temple on pi. xvi. 



come the three sons of Tehutihetep in order — 
Shemsu-em-khau-ef, Usertsen-ankh, and Ne- 
hera. They wear loin-cloths, pointed in front ; 
a very unusual decoration, namely, a long 
bead necklace, is seen round the neck of the 
second, and may once have figured on the 
others. 

In the third row is the sahu kefa ah kherp as 
Ab-lcau sa Sep, " servant who conceals (?) the 
heart, he who superintends [the construction 
of] the tomb, Ab-kau's son Sep." He holds a 
spear and battle-axe. Next there is another 
spear-holder, then a sedan-chair borne on the 
shoulders of four men. The three first have 
sandals, and the third figure wears a curious 
garment round the loins. 

In the second row one man bears a shield of 
dappled bullock's hide ; another a large fly-flap 
and a long staff ; the third a short staff and a 
fly-flap. The last two have large oval plates, or 
skins, the nature of which is obscure, strapped 
on their chests. The fourth carries an ample 
robe (perhaps the winter garment of pi. vi.) 
thrown over the left arm. The fifth bears a 
bow and a basket ; the sixth a bow and short 
staff, with a closed quiver slung on his back. 
In the top row remain the lower parts of five 
sandalled figures. The first figure probably 

holds either a baton v or a censer a □ burning 

incense. The second has a long staff ; the 

inscription before him seems to read, udh, 

"pure " The inscription before the third 

probably reads, dnti udh, " pure frankincense;" 
that before the fourth, hebs udh, "pure clothes." 
These figures probably carried boxes containing 
the materials mentioned. 

2. The Long Inscription (pi. xiv.). 

Immediately before the large standing figure 
of Tehutihetep is an inscription of twelve 
lines, referring to the transport of the colossal 
statue, as figured in the scene that follows. 
Its importance was long ago recognised by 

c 



18 



EL BERSHEH. 



Chabas, 1 who in 1873 made the first attempt 
to translate it. In 1878, Professor Maspero 2 
improved considerably on the first version; 
Professor Erman 3 printed a partial translation 
in 1885; Professor Brugsch did the same in 
1891 ; 4 and Maspero revised his own trans- 
lation last year for his Etudes de Mytliologie 5 
The text is extremely difficult, so that at 
present it is impossible to fix the sense satis- 
factorily. The copy given by Lepsius appears 
to be absolutely correct as far as it goes : we 
have compared it with copies by Nestor de 
l'Hote, Bonomi (Hay), and with Major Brown's 
photograph, without finding any error. The 
inscription is now all destroyed, excepting a 
scrap of the first line. The earlier copies show 
lacunae at the tops of the lines, due to the 
earthquake ; fortunately, in clearing the tomb, 
we found amongst the debris two inscribed 
fragments, which complete the text from the 
second to the eighth line. These fragments 
have been presented, with others, to the British 
Museum. The text in the plate is from an 
enlargement of Major Brown's photograph 
collated with Lepsius's excellent copy. 

1. shems tut ne meh xni em dner ne Het-neb. dsth 
sheta urt uat dt-nef her-es er Met neh[f\. dsth 
sheta 2. her db en reth dteh aat her-es ma (sic) dner 
sheta ne sent em dner-ne-rudet. erdd-hud iut 
3. zamu ne hunu neferu er art nef uat hena. sau 
ne Mertiu-neter ne dhu Merpu hena 4. rekhu zed 
reth net nekht-a d-n\_d~\ er dnt-ef db-d fu netiu 
demdet hat nefer urt maa 5. er Met nebt 

dau dm rehen-nef her khred nekht-a em ah sedau 6 (?) 

1 Melanges Egyptologiques, IIP serie, Tome ii., p. 115 
et seq. 

2 Transactions of the S. B. A., vol. vii., pp. 7-10. 

3 Mgypten, ii., pp. 633-4. 

4 JEgyptologie, pp. 293-5. 

5 Tome i., pp. 55-61. 

6 This seems to be some form of the word I c^ 



ah-sen Meper 6. aui-sen nekht ua dm her drtpeht 
se Ma 

dsth tut-pen dfd em per em du aa em 7. shau er Met 
neb[t]. hauu aper meh em shepsesu dep maa ne 
meshau-d ne neferu zamu (for neferu ne zamu?) 
8. Merseku dep maa-ef dept re-sen em duaut-d em 
hesut-dent Mer seten mesu-d 9. [ Man ?] 7 Meher 
mekhet-d heseptiu-d her nds duaut, seper-na er 
demaen net-ten 10. \j)atl] demdet hat nefer urt 
maa er Met nebt hau dru em hat sab-dd-mer dru 
ne 11. [mekhetT] em Menu net-ten semen-n[d] em 
Maut dep dteru. en ha db-sen nen dr-nd drt-d nd 
12. [Mertneterl] semenkht en zet zet mekhet 
hetep ds-d pen em hatu-ef ent zet zet 

Following 8 the statue of 13 cubits in stone of Het- 
nub 9 (alabaster quarry). Behold, very wonderful 10 
was the road upon which it came, more than any- 
thing. Behold, wonderful 2. to the minds of men 
was the dragging of valuable stone along it on 
account of the stone (the rocky way from the 
quarry?), (and) difficult (would it have been even) 
for a mere square block (or " foundation block ") of 
sandstone. I caused to come 3. troops 11 of goodly 
youths in order to make for it the road, together 
with the guilds (or " orders") of tomb-sculptors 
and quarrymen, the foremen with them 4. knowing 
how to point out (lit. "say") the strong-armed. 10 



perhaps written simply I 

spelling be possible, I 

by all the copies and the photograph. 



y£> l or, if such a 
l : the last is favoured 



' The remains of a sign shown on the new fragment are 
very strange, and do not readily connect themselves with 
any known hieroglyph. 

8 Bringing a statne in procession is expressed as " follow- 
ing " it. 

9 On the quarry of Het-nub see p. 23. 

10 sheta, " secret," " mysterious," almost in the sense of 
" difficult," or of " wonderful." 

11 The word zamu, which we translate " troops " and which 
occurs so many times in the inscriptions referring to the 
transport of the colossus, seems to mean (1) able-bodied 
youths fit for training, almost " subject to conscription " ; 
(2) trained gangs. In order to accomplish their great 
undertakings, the Pharaohs must have had at their command 
enormous bodies of disciplined men accustomed to united 
labour. The word zamu appears always to be used with 
reference to this kind of discipline. "I trained the zamu 
of mynome," or " the zamu of Egypt," is a phrase frequently 
found in the mouths of princes and Pharaohs. They would 
probably be employed not only in the construction of 
pyramids or temples, but also in warfare on occasion, 
in keeping in order the dams, &c. 

12 This was Professor Maspero's translation before the 
discovery of the new fragment confirmed in a remarkable 
way his suggested restoration of the line : yet even with 
that confirmation of his reading we cannot feel sure that 



TRANSPORT OF THE COLOSSUS. 



19 



I came to bring it, my heart enlarged, the towns- 
men all rejoicing : exceeding good was it to see 
5. more than anything. 

The aged one among them leaned upon the boy, the 
strong-armed was with the trembler (palsied), their 
hearts rose, 6. their arms became strong, each one 
of them displayed the force of a thousand men. 

Behold, this statue, well squared, was coming forth 
as a rock (or, " when coming forth from the block 
of stone "), more 7. costly than anything. A fleet 
had been equipped and filled with valuable things ; 
the foreheads (?) of my army, the goodly youths of my 
troops were 8. with the feats of its foreheads (?).' 
Their speech was full of my praises (and) of 
my favours of-before-the-king, my children 9. in 
splendour (?) adorned after me. My country-folk 
shouted praises. I approached to the habitation of 
this town. 10. The whole divine cycle (?) rejoiced, 
it was exceeding beautiful to see more than anything 
that the ^a-princes had done formerly (or) the 
sab-ad-mer officers had done 11. [for future fame] 
within this city, (whom) I had placed on altar- 
bases upon the river-bank. 2 Their hearts never 
devised these things that I did, in that I had made 
for myself 12. [a sepulchre?], established for ever 
and ever, after that this my tomb rested from its 
work of eternity. 

3. The colossus dragged by rows of men (pis. xii. 
and xv.). 

The statue taken from the quarries of Hetnub 
must have been of alabaster, or rather arragon- 
ite, and is by far the largest monument in this 
material on record, being a seated statue, 
13 cubits, i.e. over 20 feet, in height. In the 
picture it is all white, excepting the head-dress 
and artificial beard, which are coloured blue. 
The right arm is bent ; the hand, closed and 
holding a napkin, rests on the thigh. The 



the meaning is correctly given ; we might translate the last 
part "overseers well skilled. The strong-armed said, 'I 
have come to pull it, with pleasure in my heart,' " showing 
how willingly men volunteered to help. 

1 Cf. Catalogue des Monuments, I., I., de Philae a Ombos, 
p. 66, where hetru em seku tep-maa-ef occurs; but the passage 
is extremely difficult. 

2 Or "the ha- princes placed before, the sab-ad-mer officials 
placed behind (in the procession) within this city, I enter- 
tained at banquets upon the river-banks." 



only clothing is a head-dress and loin-cloth. 
The chief interest centres in the former, the 
copies of which vary considerably. The head- 
covering was painted blue, with black ribbing. 
The questions to decide are, whether it had the 
uraeus in front, so representing a king, and 
whether it had a twisted pig-tail behind. None 
of the early copies show the uraeus, but the 
photograph strongly suggests it. The copies 
by Ricci and Weidenbach show a short and 
thick prolongation of the head-dress behind the 
plinth, bound round at the end with a cord. 
The photograph partly confirms this, but the 
prolongation appears to be narrower, thus 
indicating that the head-dress terminated in a 
variety of the pig- tail (really a gathering to- 
gether of the material) that is proper to this 
adornment of kings. The throne is plain; 
doubtless it was a solid block in the original, 
with legs and seat indicated in sculpture ; the 
cushion is shown bent over the low back. 
Behind was the usual plinth to support the 
figure, reaching to the neck. The base is rect- 
angular and plain. The colossal statue is placed 
upright on a wooden sledge ; a band formed by 
a number of ropes (coloured brownish) passes 
over the lap and arm, and is fixed to the side 
of the sledge, while two other bands below the 
knee and above the foot are brought round 
horizontally behind the chair. In order to 
tighten them, these bands have been forcibly 
twisted, and the twist secured by sticks passed 
through and kept in place with cord. Where 
the bands were liable to chafe the stone, the 
statue has been protected by pads of dappled 
ox-skin. 

The front of the sledge is curved upwards 
and rounded at the top, and to it are attached 
four hawsers, dragged by parallel lines of men, 
each row consisting of twenty-one pairs, pull- 
ing on opposite sides of the rope, and a 
leader, the latter with the end of the rope 
over his shoulder. On the knees of the 
colossus stands a superintendent, clapping his 

c 2 



20 



EL BERSHEH. 



hands to mark time. 1 The inscription over 
him reads : — 

(1) zed medu 2 del Men ne mesha (2) an mednu (?) 
(3) Zehutihetep mery seten % 

(1) Speech : Giving the time-beat to the soldiers 
(2) by the signal-giver (?) (crying), (3) "Tehuti- 
hetep ! beloved of the king ! " 

Another figure standing on the base pours 
water from a jar in front of the sledge, perhaps 
only a ceremonial act, since even in large quan- 
tities water poured upon the ground could not 
assist the dragging. In front of the statue is 
a man holding a censer and fanning the burn- 
ing incense in honour of the figure. The in- 
scription reads : art seneter, " censing," Over 
the head of the figure he is described as the— 

(1) kher heb an ut ne per seten (2) an as pen 
deb (?) (3) Heru Amend-ank/m 

(1) Lector, mummy-painter of the house of the king, 
(2) decorator of this tomb, the embalmer (?) (3) of 
Horus, Amena-ankhu. 

In the row below the statue are three men 
with yokes, bringing water, presumably to pour 
before the statue. The inscription reads — 

fat mu an per zet 
Carrying water by (men of) the house of eternity. 

Behind them three men carry on their 
shoulders a great block of wood with curiously 
jagged outline at the top. The inscription 
above reads — 

fat Met ne seta an hemtiu (?) 

Carrying logs of conveyance by the workmen (?). 

Behind them are three overseers, armed with 
sticks. 

1 Wilkinson's copy shows a water-skin upon his back 
slung from his neck, but this is not traceable in the photo- 
graph, nor in any other copy. 

2 This is Prof. Erman's new reading of the group i j) 

which he considers to be an abbreviation. We have no 
doubt that this is the correct view. 

3 ^Restorations from the old copies are not given in pi. xv. 
and reference must be made to the general plate No. xii. 



Behind the statue are four rows of men, 
three in each row. The upper ones have a 
close-fitting loin-cloth, the rest have it pointed 
in front. One of the leading figures, probably 
that in the third row, is the 

Merp hatu em tut pen an hen [Ne~\Mtd-anM sa 
Sepd 

He who undertook the work of this statue, the box- 
painter (?), Nekhta-ankh's son Sepa. 

The leader of the fourth row is the mer per 
Nehera, " steward Nehera." 

With regard to the men dragging the statue, 
the two places of honour, in the middle, are 
reserved for the youths of the privileged military 
and sacerdotal classes, while the two outer 
rows are occupied by the able-bodied youths 
of the East side and the "West side of the nome 
respectively. Although none of the rows of 
men are uniformly dressed, the costumes are 
worth noting. 

(1) The two outside rows are very similar 
to each other ; there are, perhaps, only two or 
three shaven heads in each. Most have frizzed 
heads of hair, a considerable number have the 
hair plain, and the only dress is the usual close- 
fitting loin-cloth. 

(2) The priests wear the same dress as the 
last, but are distinguished by the large pro- 
portion of shaven heads amongst them. Two 
only have their hair frizzed, and about a dozen 
have smooth hair. 

(3) The dress of the warrior class shows 
more variety, and is altogether the most note- 
worthy ; the neat white loin-cloth of civil 
costume appears nowhere. All the dresses 
are open in front, in order to give freer action 
to the limbs, and are completed by a separate 
piece of stuff hanging from the belt. In many 
cases the tunic is long, white, and cut square 
in front ; one such tunic is speckled black. In 
a great many instances a much smaller garment 
is worn, cut away and rounded in front, and 
coloured brown. It is not easy to ascertain 



TRANSPORT OF THE COLOSSUS. 



21 



the nature of the pendant piece. 1 Its colour 
may be green, brown or white, generally 
marked with paler spots. In two cases there 
are coloured cords hanging down from the 
girdle and terminating in tassels, and a few 
have a pointed white object — probably a 
narrow end of the cloth — hanging in front. 
Two have bands crossed on the chest, and 
encircling the body below the breast. The 
hair is generally frizzed (coloured black, at 
least in some cases 2 ) — never shaven ; some- 
times it is smooth, and in seven cases an 
ostrich feather is worn in it. In the fifth 
group from the right a youth wears a fillet 
round the top of the head, and the shape of 
the wig of his neighbour on the left is peculiar. 
The inscriptions referring to the four rows 
are as follows : — 

Row 1. The inscription, in two vertical 
lines at the right-hand end of the row, reads — 

zamu ne dment JJnt iu em hetep 

The troops of the West side of the Hare nome, 
arrival in peace (i.e. dragging the statue to its 
destination). 

The inscription above the draggers reads — 

zed med,u dment em heb db-sen fu maa-sen menu ne 
neb-sen dau k/ieper em her-db-sen per-ef per dt-ef 
du-ef em nekhenu 

Speech : The West is holding festival, their heart 
expands when they see the monuments of their lord, 
the heir coming into their midst, his house and the 
house of his father when he was a child. 

Row 2. The inscription at the end of the 
row reads — 

zamu ne ahautiu ne JJnt sper(?) em hetep 
The troops of fighting-men of the Hare nome, arrival 
in peace. 



1 A very similar costume is worn by the huntsmen at 
Beni Hasan, vide Beni Hasan, Pt. I., pis. xiii. and xxx. 

2 The colours in Wilkinson's copy appear untrustworthy, 
and our remarks on the colours are based upon careful 
facsimiles by Mr. Howard Carter of two pairs of the 
men. 



The inscription over the military draggers 
reads — 

zed medu neferu ne zamu dr ne yieb-ef dau uaz em 
hestu dthy neb iu-en se-uaz-en mesu-ef em Met-ef 
db-en fu em hes[t^\u net seten men uah 

Speech : Oh ! goodly youths of the troops, the 
creation of their master, the heir flourishes in his 
inheritance by the favour of our lord the king, let 
us come, let us make to flourish his children after 
him, our hearts expanded with joy by the royal 
favour of the king, may he long remain on the 
throne ! 

Row 3. The inscription at the end of the 
row reads — 

sau ne uabu ne Tint iut em hetep 

The orders of the priests of the Hare nome, arrival 
in peace. 

The inscription above the priestly draggers 

reads — 

zed- medu meru Zehuti ZehutiJietep mery seten mereru 
netlu-ef hesesu neteru-es nebu reu-peru em heb 
db-sen fu maa sen hestu-ek ent k/ier-seten 

Speech : Oh, beloved of Thoth ! Tehutihetep, beloved 
of the king, beloved of the people of his city, 
praised by all their gods. The temples are holding 
festival, their hearts expand with joy when they 
see thy favours of before the king. 

Row 4. The inscription, in two vertical 

lines at the end of the row, reads — 

zamu ne dbtet JJnt iut em hetep 

The troops of the eastern side of the Hare nome, 
arrival in peace. 

The inscription above the draggers reads — 

zed medu nza en neb-d er Theretd Mehti (?) hau dm-ef 
dtefu-ef em heb db senfu hauem menu\_-ef~\ neferu 

Speech : Proceeded my lord to Thereta, the god 
Mehti (?) rejoices in him (and) his fathers are in 
feast, their hearts expand with joy, rejoicing in 
his beautiful monuments. 

In the top row seven groups of men are 
seen advancing to greet the arrival of the 
statue. The details of the figures are much 
destroyed. The men in the second group from 
the right, which is the best preserved, have 



22 



EL BERSHBH. 



shaven heads (yellowish, speckled with black), 
and hold palm branches. Their loin-cloths are 
similar to those of the soldiers ; but the white 
tunics are much shorter, and alternate with the 
rounded brown tunics; 1 they also have tassels 
or white strings with black ends. Some of 
the other groups are more like the civilians 
and priests. Above this row is an inscription 
which reads as follows : — 

Unt em heb db-es fu clau-es khred[u] zamu-[_es] 
se-uaz Mredu-es her [ne]hem db-sen em heb maa- 
sen neb-sen sa neb-sen em hest dthy her art menu-ef 

The Hare nome is in feast (and) its heart expands 
with joy, its old men and the children of (?) its 
troops who refresh its children are rejoicing-, their 
hearts in feast, when they see their master and 
their master's son in the favour of the king, 
making his monument. 

4. The temple or building to which the statue 
was brought, and the sacrifices made on the 
occasion (pis. xii. and xvi.). 
The fourth section of this great scene is 
now almost destroyed, and it is with great 
difficulty that we have been able to ascertain 
its general character from existing fragments 
and the copies and notes of previous explorers. 
Arundale's slight, but careful, sketch 2 of the 
side of the tomb shows the wall in a more com- 
plete state; and, although it gives no details, 
we learn from it where to place the figure of a 
doorway copied by Bonomi 3 and Lepsius 4 and 
recently cut away. 5 Unfortunately the re- 
mainder of the scenes appear to have been much 
injured even then. From pi. xii. it will be 
found that there was at the base of all, in the 
fifth row, a scene of sacrificing oxen ; above it 



1 Copied in colours by Howard Carter. 

2 Brit. Mus. Add. MS., 29,814, Ms. 3 and 4. 

3 Brit. Mus. Add. MS., 29,814, fol. 6. 

4 Lepsius, Denkmaler, Abth. ii., Bl. 135, a-d. 

5 The two jambs of the doorway, which were cut away in 
1888 or 1889, are now preserved in the Florence Museum, 
and were photographed there by Prof. Flinders Petrie in 
1893. 



must have been offerings brought to the statue 
by men and women occupying four rows which 
reach to the frieze. At the end of the wall and 
corresponding to these four rows a great in- 
scribed doorway was shown, displaying a figure 
or standing statue of Tehutihetep within. On 
the lintel and jambs of the doorway we read 
the name and full titles of Tehutihetep in no 
less than eleven lines, and over it the name of 
the building or estate, viz : Zehutihetep-m,en- 
meru[t] em Unt, 6 " Tehutihetep-firm-in-favour 
in the Hare nome." The bases of the jambs 
are represented plain. 7 

As to the rest of the scene, very few details 
can be recovered. The signs composing the 
line of inscription on the left of the scene of 
offerings are faint and mutilated, but they are 
all identifiable and read : — 

sekhepet hat uzhu dnent hesept-ef dmt Unt en tut 

pen en ha Zehutihetep neb dmakh 
Bringing the first-fruits of offerings, brought by his 

lands within the Hare nome, to this statue of the 

/m-prince Tehutihetep, possessing the reward of 

worth. 

Of the scenes of offerings only a few figures 
can be traced. Near the gateway were placed 
vases. The statue within the gateway is accom- 
panied by the titles and name of Tehutihetep. 
The inscriptions on the gateway itself, after 
eliminating mere repetitions, are as follows : — 

On the lintel : — 

(1) Er-pa, ha, ur dua emper Zehuti, kher heb her tep 

(2) kherp neter hetep, kherp nesti 

(3) mer henu neter, sent kherp shenzet nebt, dri 
Nek/ien, 

(4) sab-dd-mer, 

(5) her tep heseput (?) qemau, sekhem neteru 

(1) The e^a-prince, the /^-prince, great of five in 
the house of Tehuti, chief lector, 

(2) Regulator of the divine offerings, regulator of 
the two thrones, 



6 This is given in Bonomi's copy, vide Brit. Mus. Add. 
MS. 29,814, fol. 6. 

7 They are marked " plain " on the copy of Arundale. 



NOTE ON THE COLOSSUS. 



23 






(3) Superintendent of the priests, ^em-master of all 
the tunics, he who helongs to the city of Nekhen. 

(4) Sab-ad-mer, 

(5) Chief of the southern estates, having power with 
the gods. 

On the left-hand jamb : — ■ 

(1) her tep act ne Tint, her sesheta ne mezu neter, 

(2) semer uciti ne vierut, her tep dat khentet, 

(3) sahu bdti, semer uati, dm db Heru neb aha, art 
pe neb. 

(1) Great Chief of the Hare nome, set over the 
mysteries of divine words. 

(2) Beloved confidential friend of the king, chief of 
high offices, 

(3) Treasurer of the King of Lower Egypt, con- 
fidential friend of the king, he who is in the heart 
of Horus (the king), lord of the palace, he who 
belongs to every place. 

On the right-hand jamb : — 

(1) Corresponds to line 1 on the left-hand jamb. 

(2) Similar to line 2 on the left-hand jamb. 

(3) bener merut, " sweet of love." 



NOTE ON THE COLOSSUS. 

The scene that we have just described is of 
great interest in several ways — the nature of 
the statue, its colossal size, and the repre- 
sentation of its conveyance, are all of singular 
importance ; in fact, there is no other scene 
depicting the method of transport by land of 
the enormous monuments that the Egyptians 
were accustomed to erect. 

A seated statue of arragonite, 13 cubits in 
height (about 22 feet), must have weighed at 
least 58 tons. Granite statues weighing fifteen 
times as much are not unknown in Egyptian 
archaeology. Although the El Bersheh colossus 
was so far inferior to these in size, the difficulty 
of removing it was increased by the softness 
and delicacy of the material. It seems that no 
machinery whatever was used, and the method 
employed was the same as that for conveying 
statues of very moderate bulk. 

The conveyance of the monument was 
effected by obtaining large bodies of men 



trained to combined action. They appear to 
have been all drawn from the Hermopolite 
nome, and are represented as giving their 
services joyfully in honour of their prince. "We 
now know with tolerable certainty the situa- 
tion of the quarry from which the colossus was 
obtained. 1 The eastern mountains for a long 
distance north and south from El Bersheh 
contain veins of alabaster, and there are signs 
of workings for this beautiful material at many 
points. The whole extent of the quarries from 
north to south may be estimated at a hundred 
miles at least, but by far the most important 
that have been discovered as yet are two situate 
ten miles in the desert east of Tell el Amarna. 
The graffiti in them attest their great im- 
portance, the northern one having been 
worked especially under the Old Kingdom, 
the southern by the Hermopolite nomarchs of 
the Middle Kingdom. Professor Petrie has 
sketched the position of these quarries in his 
last memoir, 2 and shows the course of a well- 
made road carried from the northern quarry 
down the wady into the Nile valley, crossing 
the head of a ravine by a causeway. From the 
southern quarry the road is less well defined, 
but the two tracks must have joined after a 
few miles. Perhaps for the execution of so 
large a work as this colossal statue Tehuti- 
hetep may have preferred to resort to the 
earlier (northern) quarry, but his inscription 
lays stress on the difficulties of the stony road, 
" such as would have been difficult even for 
the conveyance of a square block of sand- 
stone." It would have been impossible to 
convey the statue over hill and ravine in a 
direct line north-west to El Bersheh or Her- 
mopolis. The usual road must have been 
followed, taking advantage of the wadys, and 
running nearly due east. When the soft sandy 
edge of the desert was reached, a firm track 

1 Vide El Bersheh, Part II., Introduction. 

2 Tell el Amarna, 1894, pi. xxxiv. 



24 



EL BERSHEH. 



was obtained, probably, by making a stone 
pavement such as is still discernible about the 
quarries at Aswan 1 ; and when the procession 
arrived at the alluvial clay of the cultivated 
land, free use would be made of great 
wooden beams laid longitudinally upon the 
ground, 2 

The labour of dragging must have been 
enormous, and probably the engineer would 
economise his forces by making all the use 
he could of the current of the Nile. If the 
statue was destined for Hermopolis itself, it 
must have been conveyed across the river ; and 
in any case it is doubtful whether it could have 
been taken by land along the eastern shore as far 
as El Bersheh, for at the present time the land 
passage is extremely narrow. The shipment 
of large monuments was of course well under- 
stood in Ancient Egypt, and we may feel sure 
that this mode of transport was used in convey- 
ing the colossus of Tehutihetep, and that it 
floated down the stream for several miles. 

The whole task must have occupied a very 
large force of men for many weeks. The scene 
in the tomb no doubt represents the last stage 
of the journey and the arrival of the monument 
at its appointed place. 

There is no evidence to be found that so 
large a block of alabaster was ever again 
quarried, and it seems at first sight almost 
incredible that it should have been taken by 
any person of lower rank than the sovereign 

1 In the survey of the quarries at Aswan, M. de Morgan 
has explained the method of conveying granite blocks from 
the quarry to the river, stating also that the tracks them- 
selves were left bare, and that only piles of stones are to be 
found at the sides of the tracks (see Catalogue cles Monu- 
ments, I., i., p. 64). The Editor wrote the above from re- 
collection of what he took to be stone-paved tracks in the 
Eastern desert in 1887, but it is possible that the deep sand 
deceived him as to their nature. 

2 According to Prof. Petrie's suggestion, the piece of 
wood with notched edge carried by four men was a beam, 
to be laid in the ground with the jagged side downwards, 
so as to grip the ground and prevent it from slipping with 
the movement of the colossus. 



himself. The head-dress of the statue is of a 
royal type, and the photograph shows signs 
even of the emblem of the royal uraeus, so that 
we have been strongly tempted to see in this 
statue a representation of one of theUsertsens. 
There is, however, much evidence on the 
other side. 

First, the inscription in the scene of offerings 
appears to specify the statue as that of Tehuti- 
hetep, and it is only by inserting an extra sign 
that we can attribute it to anyone else. 2 

Secondly, as Professor Petrie has pointed 
out, the royal head-dress, though without the 
urasus, is occasionally found on statues of 
deceased nobles. 3 

Thirdly, the statue is not called royal or 
connected with the name of a king in any of the 
inscriptions ; and this would be strange if the 
statue actually represented one of the Pharaohs. 

Fourthly, the analogy of scenes in the 
tombs representing the conveyance of statues, 
as well as the whole drift of the scenes and 
inscriptions in this tomb, point distinctly to 
its representing the nomarch Tehutihetep. 

After full consideration, therefore, we have 
no hesitation in accepting the view taken by 
all previous writers on the subject. 

It was the custom in Ancient Egypt to place 
in the tomb of a great man one or more statues 
representing him, and serving as the material 
basis for his "shade" or lea to rest upon. 
Numbers of such statues of the Ancient Empire 
have been found in the tombs. The statues 
were capable of receiving offerings ; they might 
also find a place in the temples of the gods in- 
stead of in the tombs, and such portrait-statues 
have often been discovered in temple ruins. 
In the tomb of Hep-zefa at Asyut is a record 



• As the copy stands at present, the inscription reads : — 
"Bringing offerings to the statue of the prince Tehutihetep," 
but by reading [j «™« an instead of "»~* we, we might obtain 
a plausible reading, " bringing offerings to the statue by the 
prince Tehutihetep." 

3 Lepsius, Denhnaler, ii., Bl. 64 his. 



NOTE ON THE COLOSSUS. 



25 



of ten contracts with the priests of the local 
divinity for offerings to be made to the prince's 
statues. One of these statues is stated to be 
in the temple of Anubis, another in that of 
Up-uat, the chief god of the nome ; a third 
was apparently at the foot of the flight of 
steps which led up the hill to his tomb; and 
a fourth was in the pleasure grounds, which 
consisted, no doubt, of gardens with a reservoir 
at the edge of the desert. 1 

In the tombs of the Ancient and Middle 
Empire we find a number of scenes of the 
transport of statues, either to visit a temple or 
to be placed for the first time in their ap- 
pointed situation. The transport was always 
accompanied by certain ceremonies — the pour- 
ing out of water on the ground before the 
sledge, and the burning of incense. The 
former ceremony may have had the practical 
object of easing the passage of the sledge and 
reducing the heat caused by the friction. In 
several of the tombs at Beni Hasan a small 
shrine containing a figure is being conveyed in 
procession, followed by a number of attendants, 
while dances and acrobatic feats are performed 
before it. 2 

In the earlier tombs of the Vth Dynasty we 
also see statues. In the tomb of Ptahshepses, 
discovered by M. de Morgan, 3 there are pro- 
cessions of several standing statues, with and 
without shrines. In another tomb at Sak- 
kara, that of Rashepses, published by Lepsius, 4 
there are figured four colossal statues, all of 
different types (two standing and two seated), 



1 The inscription is published by Griffith, Inscriptions of 
Siut and Der Rifeh, pis. 6-8, and has been translated by 
Professors Maspero and Erman. The latest translation is in 
Maspero's Etudes de Mytlwlogie et Archeologie Egyptiemies, 
i. ( p. 53 ff., where a number of documents dealing with the 
subject are brought together ; see also Trans. S. B. A., vii., 
p. 6 ff . 

2 See Beni Hasan, Part I., pis. xiii. and xxix., and Part 
II., pis. vii. and xvii. 

3 Revue Archcologique, sxiv., p. 18 ff., and pis. i., ii. 

4 Denkmaler, Abtb. ii., Bl. 64 bis. 



each drawn by twelve men and a leader. The 
head-dress of one of these is very similar to 
that on our colossus, 5 and its form is un- 
doubtedly to be explained by the fact of the 
deification of the dead man. 

In the tomb of Tehutihetep the statue is 
being dragged in the direction of a great in- 
scribed gateway. Between this and the statue 
are scenes of offerings. It may be doubted 
whether the statue was to be placed within the 
building represented by the gateway, or was to 
remain where it was outside. The gateway may 
represent the entrance of Tehutihetep' s palace. 
The position of the nomarch's figure within it 
is curious, for, according to the method usually 
followed by Egyptian artists, if it were a figure 
standing upon the ground, it should be placed 
on the level of the floor of the entrance ; in 
reality it is raised half-way up the side. 
Tehutihetep himself is figured in the pro- 
cession behind the colossus, so that there is 
little doubt that this figure in the gateway 
represents a sculpture, possibly a statue raised 
in a niche or upon a high pedestal. Or, 
again, the artist may have broken through the 
usual rules, and endeavoured to produce a view 
in perspective. 

The building was named Zehutihetep-men- 
meru\f\ em JJnt, "Tehutihetep-firm-in-favour in 
the Hare nome," and we may conjecture that 
it was either the nomarch's palace or a country 
residence of his, or a chapel intended only to 
receive his &a-statues. 

From the monuments and debris in the 
granite quarries of Aswan, and the sandstone 
quarries at Jebel es Silsileh, we learn that 
figures were sometimes finished on the spot 
before removal ; but it seems probable that the 
final touches would not be given to the sculp- 
ture until it had arrived at its destination. 
Notwithstanding this, the colossus of Tehuti- 
hetep appears as if quite finished in the 

5 It has not the uraeus. 



EL BBESHBH. 



26 

picture, and the inscription, by its reference to 
the stony road, makes it probable that it has 
been dragged straight from the qnarry through 
the desert to the river side, floated down to the 
city, and then drawn up to its place. 

Before leaving this subject it is to be noted 
that the expression " the praises-of-before- 
the-king" is frequently introduced into the 
inscription, and it is probable that Tehutihetep 
was indebted to the Pharaoh either for the 
gift of the statue or for permission to set it up 
to his own memory. 



Capture of Birds and Fish (pis. xii. and xvii.). 
The four bottom rows on this wall are 
almost entirely occupied with the subject of 
the annual stock-taking of the herds. At the 
outer end, however, a space corresponding m 
height to the three upper rows (Nos. 6, 7 
and 8) is partitioned off, and contains a scene 
of Tehutihetep taking the leading part m 
netting a flock of wild fowl, while a number of 
peasants are figured drawing a shoal of fish 
ashore. The designer has had the courage to 
represent the two captures together in the 
same pool, and he has not drawn in the outline 
of the bird -net. With regard to the last 
remark, however, we may suppose that the 
signal for pulling has not yet been obeyed, so 
that the edges of the net are hidden m the 
water; the birds, in fact, are still feeding, 
undisturbed. 

In the top left-hand corner is seen the net 
full of fish, with its floats on the edge, the 
fishermen at each end just pulling it ashore. 
The narrowness of their girdles is characteristic. 
The rest of the pool is crowded with ducks 
and geese of many kinds. The blue and the 
white lotus appear in the water here and there. 
Tehutihetep is seated on a stool, his wife 
Hathorhetep standing in front. Above them 
was a figure giving the usual signal for closing 



the net by stretching out a cloth in his two 
arms ; only a fragment of this remains, le- 
hutihetep holds the cord in his hand, and 
behind him was a row of probably eight 
fowlers ready to pull. The end of the cord is 
secured to a peg at the back. Over the signal- 
man is a fragment of the usual inscription, 
redet se®et, « causing to catch"; and above the 
row of kneeling fowlers, det her ne uhau em 
semt aptn an hd, &c, "giving assistance (?) 
to fowlers in netting wild-fowl by the ha- 

prince," &c. 

The results of the capture are displayed 
above, where avocets and other birds are 
hung in bunches from a pole by the wings or 
feet, and from their attitudes are clearly still 
aliv'e ; other birds are in crates or cages. At 
one point the division of this scene from the 
next is uncertain ; in fact, it seems that the 
artist wished to connect the scene of capturing 
wild-fowl with the cattle scene by the intro- 
duction of domestic geese, without drawing 
any line of demarcation. The mutilation of 
this part of the scene prevents us from being 
certain on this point; one may perhaps con- 
sider that some of the birds captured were 
deprived of their power of flight and driven 
into the farmyard. An official with his back 
to Tehutihetep seems to be attending to this; 
at any rate, the row of oxen (No. 8) in the 
next plate is followed immediately by a double 
row of geese facing in the same direction. 



Annual Stock-taking of the Herds (pis. xii. and 
xvii.-xix.) 
At the inner end of the wall is a lightly-con- 
structed building, a kiosque or booth, called 
n 8 (T\ seh, in which is seated Tehutihetep. 
He is "watching the great counting" o£ the 
oxen This was evidently a very great oc- 
casion in the nome. In front of him is seen 
the arrival of a number of boats, and the 
cattle are driven up to his scribes in three 



STOCK-TAKING OF HERDS. 



27 



rows. The sell has an ornate Egyptian cornice, 
supported by light columns, with lotus-bud 
capitals and small circular bases; below the 
cornice are inscribed the titles of Tehutihetep, 
starting in the middle and running right and 
left to the ends. No doubt this represents the 
front of the seh, 1 and Tehutihetep looking out 
of it should have faced the spectator; but an 
artistic representation of this attitude being 
impossible to an Egyptian and contrary to his 
traditions, this part of the subject is given in 
profile. The great man is seated on an elegant 
wooden chair of the usual Egyptian pattern, 
dressed in his fine robes and holding a long 
staff and feather fly-flap. A reed mat covers 
the floor, and a little dog of turnspit type 
stands beneath his master's chair. The in- 
scription reads : — 

ma[a art?'] thenut hat em dderu-[ef net kher seten 
hena dderu- i ~\ ef ne per zet dsth asha urt er Met 
nebt, de-ef hesut er [sedem Mesef-ef en sedem ?] 
dp-ef set ne seten ne zet zet an ha. ur dua Merp 
nesti Zehutihetep mes ne Sat-kheper-ka neb dmakh 

"Seeing the making of a great counting of his cattle 
[of-before-the-king (of the king's gift) with his 
cattle] of the house of eternity, being indeed very 
numerous more than anything, he gives praise to the 
obedient, [he punishes the disobedient ?], he counts 
it to the king for ever and ever : by the /ta-prince, 
the great of five, the regulator of the two thrones, 
Tehutihetep, born of Sat-kheper-ka, possessing the 
reward of worth." 

The row of boats is somewhat injured, but 
presents many curious details. We learn first 
that it was the custom for a great man, in 
order to avoid the unpleasant neighbourhood 
of the sailors, to put the crew into a separate 



1 The building here shown in elevation from the front is 
sometimes (e.g. in the tomb of Paheri, of the XVIIIth 
Dynasty, at El Kab, see pi. iv. in the Eleventh Memoir of 
the Egypt Exploration Fund) represented in section |_j • 
From these pictures we ascertain that the seh was a summer- 
house of wood, open in front and probably at the sides, the 
roof supported in front by two light columns. 

? The restoration is from the inscription over the boats. 



boat, which towed his own finely-furnished 
dahabiyeh, the latter being without mast or 
oars. 

At the left-hand end we see on one of these 
dahabiyehs a pilot standing with his sounding- 
pole in front, and the steersman ready to 
guide the rudder in the stern. Near the bows 
is placed a seh containing a magnificent throne, 
or more probably a sedan-chair, coloured black 
and white, 3 for use also on shore ; a figure of 
the noble seated in it is faintly traceable, and 
he holds a large fly-flap. Nearer the stern is 
a rectangular mat-work cabin, and over it is a 
pole placed horizontally in two forked uprights, 
probably in order that an outer shade might be 
thrown over the cabin in the hottest weather. 
A tow-rope connects the dahabiyeh with its 
tug, which here shows eight oars on one side ; 
the rowers sit on benches or stools ; the row- 
locks are not visible. The boat is going north- 
ward with the stream, the mast is therefore 
unshipped (with the sail wrapped round it), 
and rests on two wooden props and on the roof 
of the cabin. This boat also has a cabin of 
mat-work like the last. The next boat is 
larger still, and has ten oars on the side ; its 
rudder-post is of enormous size. From the 
action of the pilots in these three boats it is 
apparent that they are close to their destina- 
tion. In front of them is a smaller boat, with 
its oars (six to the side) already shipped and 
its crew gone. In front of this again are three 
large boats, very much like the first group, one 
of them being a dahabiyeh. They are moored 
to the bank, the oars shipped and strong 
punting-poles driven into the muddy bottom 
to hold them tight. The inscription above 
them reads : — 

iut em hetep sper er seh ne art thenut dat em dderu- 
ef ne Mer-seten hend dderu-ef [ne per] zet em 
heseput Tint an ha Merp nesti ur det semer uati 
ne merut est db seten sab[-ad-mer ha. 



3 For ivory and ebony; shown in a coloured facsimile. 



28 



EL BERSHBH. 



Kay sa Zehutihetep mes en Sat-kAeper-ha neb 



am at 



'•Arriving in peace, approaching to the hall of the 
great counting of his cattle of-before-the-king 
and his cattle of [the house of] eternity from 
the farms of the Hare nome : by the /m-prince, 
regulator of the two thrones, great of five, beloved 
confidential friend, resting-place of the heart of the 

king sab[-ad-mer, the /ia-prince, Kay's 

son Tehutihetep, born of Sat-kheper-ka, possessing 
the reward of worth] " 

This inscription implies that the noble in the 
boat is Tehutihetep himself. 

The second row seems also to be at a certain 
distance from the seh, and probably represents 
the assembling of the cattle. In front are two 
pairs of long-horned bulls fighting. In the 
first group the animals have just crossed horns, 
and are testing their powers of pushing j 1 in 
the second group one of the bulls has suc- 
ceeded in getting below the guard of the 
other, and its sharp horn has probably pene- 
trated the neck. The inscription reads : 
sefeM lea nekht, perhaps "let loose (?) mighty 
bull!" 2 

As usual in this tomb, the dresses are of 
interest. The herdsmen generally wear long 
tunics, ribbed horizontally, and long hair; a 
few, however, evidently of an inferior class 
and deformed, have only the narrow girdle of 
the fishermen. Several of them carry in their 
arms rolls of ribbed matting (of reeds ?). 

The two lowermost rows begin with the pre- 
sentation of the chief herdsman to the prince. 

1 The bull fights, so often represented in the tombs, may 
be displays for the amusement of the spectators. The 
inscriptions over corresponding groups at Beni Hasan (in 
Pt. I., pi. xxx.) are : — upt kau an sau Khnemu-nekht, 
"matching the bulls by the herdsman Khnemunekht," 
while one of the herdsmen exclaims, ha su, " charge him." 
And over the attendants of the two bulls about to charge 
(in Pt. I., pi. xiii.) is : — ha su meru dht ka nekht, " Charge 
him, O thou favourite of the cows, O thou mighty bull." 

2 At Beni Hasan (Pt. I., pi. xxx.) we have a similar 
group: — sefekh mery dht, "let loose (?), favourite of 
the cows ! " (In Beni Hasan, Pt. II., pi. vi., the attendants 
appear to be separating the bulls.) 



The chief herdsman, as well as the introducers, 
are provided with the neat loin-cloth that we 
see on most of the officials represented in the 
tomb. The under-herdsmen have the same 
two varieties of clothing as before. 

Behind, in the second row, are several 
groups of calves, each group led by a herds- 
man. Reed mats are thrown over the backs 
of the young animals to protect them from 
the cold. Following them is a man with 
a long tunic, who carries a tray of conical 
loaves and some lotus flowers. Two others 
bear six rolls of reed matting between them 
on a pole. 3 

A number of fine fat oxen of different 
colours, some of them having horns artifi- 
cially shaped, are brought up in the third row. 
Their necks are decorated with broad orna- 
mented bands, and each is led by its herdsman. 

The beginning of this row is destroyed, but 
the nearest official to the seh was a mer per, 
" steward." Next came the an neferyt, " the 
scribe Neferyt," the top of whose writing 
tablet we can just see. Then comes the mer 
per en hesept, "the steward of the domain." 
An officer with his stick introduces one of the 
chief herdsmen ; the legend over him reads 
medu em bah, " speech in the presence." The 
second is introduced by another officer, and 
the legend over him continues the salutation 
to the prince : uza ab-ek, " may thy desire 
prosper!" Over the procession of fat oxen is 
a continuous inscription, reading : — 

meseb duau ne hat mezut kheft her erpa ha sahu bdti 
kherp (reM) seten semer uati en mend her sesheta 
ne Met neter khu (?) ne dm aha. kherp (sic) rekh 
seten mater 

" Leading oxen of the best of the stalls before the 
face of the erpa-Tpvio.ee, the /ta-vrince" &c. 

In the next row are numerous milch cows, 
some with and others without horns, a few 



3 The longitudinal lines of the reed-stems are too fine to 
be visible in the plate. 



NOTE ON THE SHIPPING. 



29 



calves, and behind them two bulls, one of 
which is dappled. The hindmost has a bundle 
of reeds upon its horns. Three herdsmen 
bring up the rear. The titles and figures at 
the head of this line are broken away ; one of 
the figures, probably the fourth, is the an hen, 
" the scribe of the box;" next is the mer aderu 
seten, " superintendent of the royal herds ;" 
the third is the mer per ne per zet, " super- 
intendent of the house of eternity." Three 
herdsmen armed with sticks, and directed by 
two officers, appear to be keeping back the 
cows. The inscription over the officers is 
difficult to restore; it can hardly be hesebu 
kau, " counting the bulls." The legend beyond 
is also difficult and imperfect. It is the song 
of the herdsmen, and seems to read: — 

zed medu an shemsu kau : he ne then 

sha, Mem-then semu, un-then shenu, \a\u ,s<x- 

then nefer ne hdu-then kcma tut-then 

peh-then seub db-then behesu 

but ne mah-then nezem ne per-then 

uz re ne neint then Metem 

re er h ha Zehutihetep in em hetep 

er then 

" Uttering a speech by the followers of the oxen : 

ye stamp the sand, ye tread the fodder, 

ye browse on the herbage, your back, good for 

your body your haunches, healthy 

your belly, your calves evil is voyage, 

pleasant is your disembarking 

opening the mouth of the shutting the 

mouth for the greedy the ha-prince, 

Tehutihetep, comes in peace to you." 



NOTE ON THE SHIPPING. 

We will here gather together a few remarks 
on the constitution of a princely flotilla during 
the Middle Kingdom. We see that the ships 
described above belong to the prince Tehuti- 
hetep, and form the flotilla with which he went 
to perform his great official functions. Pro- 
bably three vessels would constitute a unit, 
namely, the dahabiyeh, the tug, and the war- 
ship as a convoy. 



We have several representations of shipping 
belonging to the Middle Kingdom in the tombs 
of Beni Hasan. The earliest of these is in the 
tomb of Khety, 1 where there is a coarsely- 
drawn scene of probably the same nature as 
the present, with three rows of cattle at the top, 
and two of ships on the water below. In the 
upper row are two dahabiyehs, each drawn by 
a tug with numerous oars. In the lower row 
are four vessels with masts, the sails faintly 
indicated; in one of these the sail is being 
lowered, while two men on the bank are 
driving in a mooring-post with heavy mallets. 
In the later tombs of Amenemhat and Khnem- 
hetep II. the drawing is better and the boats 
are of a more developed design. In that of 
Amenemhat 2 we see the mummy of the prince 
under a seh, apparently being conveyed up the 
Nile to Abydos. The funerary barge on which it 
is carried is of a peculiar shape, and is furnished 
with two rudders ; it is towed by two sailing 
ships containing soldiers — the front one with a 
large sail, the second one with a small sail and 
numerous oarsmen. In this case we may take 
it that the second boat with the oarsmen is the 
tug proper, on which, aided by the current, 
they would depend for going down stream ; 
and that the leader is the war-ship, which has 
taken the other boats in tow to increase the 
speed up stream with its large sail. Again, in 
the same tomb, 3 and corresponding to the last 
scene on the other side of the doorway, the 
harim of Amenemhat is going down the stream 
to Busiris. The war-ship takes the lead with 
its complement of rowers, then comes another 
rowing boat, and lastly the dahabiyeh with the 
harim; the tow-lines are not shown. In the 
tomb of Khnemhetep II. 4 we have the same 
boating scenes as those of Amenemhat; but, 
although it is of later date, the boating 



1 Beni Hasan, Part II., pi. xii. 

2 Beni Hasan, Part I., pi. xiv. 

3 Ibid., pi. xvi. 4 Ibid., pi. xxix. 



30 



EL BERSHEH. 



arrangements may seem rather less luxurious. 
There are only two boats in each scene. The 
funerary barge is towed by one sailing-ship 
containing soldiers; and the harim boat, in 
which the officers of the harim are shown, has 
its own oarsmen, and is preceded, but not 
towed, by a second boat containing the male 
portion of the family. Probably the dangers 
of navigation were so much increased by the 
towing that it was found preferable for each 
boat to carry its own crew. 

Many parts of these boats in the tombs of 
Amenemhat and Khnemhetep II. are brilliantly 
coloured, especially the rudders. 

A passage in a story current at the end 
of the Middle Kingdom illustrates, and is 
illustrated by, the boating scene on pi. xviii. 
In the Westcar papyrus 1 we read how Khufu 
despatched his son Hor-ded-ef to visit the 
magician Deda : " Then a flotilla was prepared 
for the king's son Hor-ded-ef. He sailed 
southward to Ded-Seneferu, and when the 
flotilla moored at the quay, he went up by 
land seated on a sedan-chair of ebony, with 
its staves of ses-nezem 2 wood, and spangled 
with gold." 

The white and black colours used in depict- 
ing the sedan-chair of Tehutihetep point to 
the combination of ivory and ebony, which are 
so often mentioned in Egyptian texts as the 
most luxurious materials for furniture. 



Inner Wall, pis. xx.-xxiii. (see Key Plan, s, t). 

On the back wall is represented the netting 
of fish and fowl, a subject we have already 
seen illustrated on the west wall ; but here it 
is differently treated, with the addition of a 
scene of bringing the captured game, &c, to 



1 Erman, Pap. Westcar, pi. vii. 

2 The wood of the carob tree or locust bean, Ceratonia 
siliqua, according to Loret. 



Tehutihetep. The wall is divided up on the 
right into eight equal rows of scenes, on the 
left the divisions are unequal. 

The width of the top scene is fixed by the 
height of the space above the door. The whole 
of this row is occupied by one subject: the 
capture of wild fowl with a clap net by 
Tehutihetep and his eldest son. Above the 
two figures is the inscription, reading : — 

hu mer henu neter vekh seten seiner uati ur dua 
Kay sa Zehutihetep neb dmakh 

" The /^-prince, superintendent of the priests, royal 
acquaintance, confidential friend of the king, great 
of five, Kay's son Tehutihetep, possessing the reward 
of worth." 

To the right are three vertical lines of 

hieroglyphs, reading : — 

sa-ef en khet-ef mery-ef ent set-ab-ef drer hesest-ef 
Shemsu-em- khau-ef, neb dmakh 

" His son of his body, the beloved one of the place of 
his heart, doing that which he praises, Shemsu-em- 
khau-ef, possessing the reward of worth/' 

Tehutihetep' s wife stands before the two 
figures, and perhaps gives the signal to pull. 
Several lines, destined, no doubt, for the descrip- 
tion of the scene, have been left blank. The 
signs below, a jackal followed by the hieroglyph 
for a pool of wild-fowl, &c, are difficult to inter- 
pret ; possibly they give the name of the pool, or 
possibly some epithet of the wife ; or they may 
describe the action. In front of Tehutihetep 
and his son are a crate full of birds, and an 
elliptical cage of basket-work above it. The 
end of the rope, pulled tight by the prince and 
his son, is fastened to a peg in the ground; 
the moment represented is when they have just 
closed the net. They are advancing towards 
the right, whilst their faces are turned towards 
the net. The net itself (see pi. xxi.) is laid in 
a large pool full of wild-fowl, with blue and 
white lotuses dotted over it. The edge of the 
pool is conventionally represented by spaces of 
vertical green lines (for grass?), alternating 
with a small-leafed plant. As to the working 



FOWLING AND FISHING. 



31 



of the net, the rope is formed into a large loop, 
round which the edges of the net are bound; 
the end of this loop is fastened to a peg in the 
water, and the net was no doubt laid open 
upon the surface. When the signal was given 
that the flock of birds had settled upon it, the 
rope was suddenly drawn tight, thus closing 
up the loop and drawing the edges of the net 
together and enclosing the birds. Among the 
birds we recognise the avocet and numerous 
species of duck. 

The scene below is of the same width as the 
last, and represents a net full of large fish, 
pulled to land by ten men, eight of whom have 
over their shoulders straps fixed to the rope, 
while only one man at each end is free to act 
independently. 

The inscription above reads : — 

ser a-ek hesy, mak de nen Sekhet ci-es nefer\t\ 
Sekhet heb-nes " at em hetep " ne serner pen ur dua 
em per Zehuti hes-es mer-es ha Zehutihetep 

" Raise thy arm, please ; behold thou the goddess 
Sekhet 1 has given us her hand; good is Sekhet, she 
has captured a "welcome" (i.e. in fish) for this royal 
friend, the great of five in the temple of Thoth ; 
whom she praises, and whom she loves, the ha- 
priuce Tehutihetep." 

In the middle of the scene are two short 
vertical lines of hieroglyphs, reading : — 
dr Sekhti dker de-ek shed-en 
"Act, good Sekhti, allow us to pull." 

On the left of the scene are two mutilated 
lines of hieroglyphs : — 

Sekhti de-ek dr-en 

" O Sekhti, cause us to do." 

A narrower row below shows the operation of 
forcing food down the throats of domesticated 

1 Sekhti, sekhet, Sekhet. — Sekhti means a person con- 
cerned with or living on the sekhet flflfl , i.e., in its primary- 
sense, the reedy, marshy land in the Delta, about the 
Natron Lakes, etc. The Sekhti caught fish and wild-fowl, 
or gathered the reeds and lotuses ; and Sekhet, " the marsh- 
goddess " (see also Beni Hasan, Part II., p. 23), was 
patroness of these pursuits. 



birds. This seems to take place under cover. 
A roof-pole is supported by three forked up- 
rights, which divide the space into four com- 
partments. In the first a man is feeding a 
crane, zat, four others of the same species are 
waiting their turn, and above them is seen a 
vessel of food. In the next three divisions 
there are three species of geese called respec- 
tively re, [therp], and set. 2 In front and above 
the feeder is a basket full of pellets, either a 
hieroglyph or a representation of the food. 

In the next row we see the treatment of the 
captured fish and birds. At the left-hand end 
the superintendent of the fishers and fowlers 
leans on his staff and watches, whilst a man 
splits the fish down the back upon a sloping 
board, and lays them open to dry in the sun. 
The fish are brought to him by a man who has 
two baskets hung on a yoke over his shoulders ; 
one of these baskets he holds upside down 
to turn out the contents. To the right is 
a frame formed of a long cross-bar and two 
uprights, and upon the former are slung several 
trussed geese, a bunch of live avocets, two 
wicker cages, and three skins. A man is 
kneeling and taking out birds from a small 
crate, and two large crates containing live 
geese are placed before him. In the bottom 
row eight servants are heavily laden with 
fruits, lotus flowers, fish, birds (alive and 
trussed) and skins (?). 

The last subject is continued in the bottom 
row of the right-hand side of the wall ; in fact, 
all this side is occupied with representations 
of bringing the spoil before Tehutihetep. He 
himself is figured large, with his favourite 
daughter Nub-unut standing before him, wear- 
ing bracelets, anklets and collar, besides the 

2 In the Ehind Mathematical Papyrus the re, therp, and 
zat are all allowed the same amount of corn for fattening, 
namely, \ of a heqt (gallon), about a pint and a half a day ; 
while the set only receives ^, less than one-third of the 
others, and a little less than half a pint. See Proc. S.B.A., 
xvi., number for June. 



32 



EL BERSHEH. 



tight-fitting dress, slung from her shoulders as 
usual. Her hair or wig is long, falling to the 
breast, and a fillet passes round over the fore- 
head, with a lotus in the knot at the back. 
Above her are her titles and name : — 

sat-ef net Met-ef avert heses[t]-ef ru neb Neb-[unut], 

nebt dma kh 
" His daughter, of his body, doing what he praises 

every day, Nuh-unut, possessing the reward of 

worth." 

Tehutihetep is in his usual garb. Over his 
head are the remains of his titles, and behind 
him stand a number of his most faithful 
servants. Of these the top figure is quite 
destroyed. The second carries a great shield and 
battle-axe. The third carries a bow and fan ; he 
is named the sahu kef a ah kherp as pen Ab-kau 
sa Sep ar en Sep, " servant who conceals (?) 
the heart, who superintends [the construction 
of] this tomb, Ab-kau's son Sep, born of Sep." 
The next holds a short staff and a battle-axe ; 
he is the sahu kef a ah Apa sa Nehera, " servant 
who conceals (?) the heart, Apa's son Nehera." 
The fifth holds two rolls of papyrus, and his 
name was perhaps Tehutihetep. The sixth 
holds staff and sandals, and the seventh is 
almost effaced. 

In front of Tehutihetep there is a line of 
inscription in large characters : — 

maa art ham remu aa urt er Met nebt 

" Seeing the making of a large capture of fish, greater 
than anything." 

Of the bearers of the game, we have in the 
top row only one figure remaining, carrying a 
large fish ; in the next four rows there are 
carriers of fish, &c, and three seated figures 
in each. 

The name of the first seated figure is sa-ef 
Shemsu-em-Mau-ef, " his son Shemsu-em-khau- 
ef." The names of the other two are destroyed. 
In the third row is sa-ef ne Met-ef Usertsen- 
anM, "his son of his body, Usertsen-ankh." 
Behind him are the an hen, "scribe of the 



box," and the mer a-khenuti, " chamberlain." 
In the fourth row is sa-ef ne Met-ef mer-ef 
Nehera, " his son of his body, whom he loves, 
Nehera," followed by the mer aht, "the super- 
intendent of the arable fields," and the shemsu 
avert, "attendant of the court." The fifth 
row is headed by the mer saht Nefer ar ne 
Zehutihetep, "treasurer Nefer, born of Tehuti- 
hetep." Behind him is a mer per, " steward," 
and a mer per ne per zet, " steward of the 
house of eternity." The sixth and seventh 
rows continue the subject of the bottom row, 
and end with two lines of hieroglyphs : — 

ne ka-ek ami ne sek/iet (?) 

" for thy ka, products of the sekhet (?) " 

Right-hand Wall, pi. xxiv. for a general view 
of the fragments, and pis. xxv.-xxxi. for 
the fragments on larger scale (see Key 
Plan, u, v). 

Of this wall a fragment at the bottom of 
the inner end is still in place. The great 
panel from which pis. xxv., xxvi., and xxvii. 
are taken is still standing at the side of the 
tomb, and it has been only slightly shifted 
by the earthquake. 1 

The remainder of the scenes so far as they 
now exist are on blocks fallen from the wall 
and lying confusedly on the floor. One huge 
block, probably with a large fragment of 
the painted scene on the under surface, was 
too heavy to be turned over. All the rest of 
the fragments have been copied and, where 
possible, fitted together and shown in their 
probable position in pi. xxiv. Amongst them 
we recognize clearly a piece of the right-hand 
edge of the wall with panelled border (see 
pi. xxvii.). 

At the inner end must have been a colossal 
figure of Tehutihetep, dominating the whole 

1 This large fragment was copied on a small scale by Sir 
G. Wilkinson. From his copy a good deal of restoration 
has been introduced into the small scale plate and pi. xxvi. 



SCENES PROM RUINED RIGHT-HA.ND WALL 



33 



of the scenes : a fragment of the tunic is 
visible on a block, pi. xxviii. 3. In front of 
this figure must have been the row of large 
figures of his wife, mother, daughters, &c. 

The general scheme of the wall therefore 
consisted of Tehutihetep with his family 
watching the occupations of his farmers, 
gardeners, artificers, &c. A narrow band at 
the base, below the feet of the large figure 
and continuing to the outer end of the wall, 
shows the household officers of the prince. In 
fact, the entire wall was intended to display 
the magnificence of Tehutihetep's family and 
estate; his sons and daughters, his retainers, 
his serfs, and the artificers employed by him. 

At the inner end of the wall, in front of 
the colossal figure and above those of his 
family, were displayed the choice unguents 
and precious vases and other products, which 
constituted an important part of the treasury 
of a luxurious palace. 

The subjects were as usual grouped to- 
gether on the different rows, but it is difficult 
to make such a reconstruction of the fragments 
as will be free from all incongruity. 

Thus the gardening scene in the fourth row 
is followed by the gathering of grapes, and 
this correctly enough by a scene of pressing 
out the juice in a cloth or bag ; but in the next 
row above is undoubtedly recognizable the 
treading of the grapes. We can only suppose 
that the disposition of the figures of the 
attendants on the daughters required a certain 
amount of space, and forced the end of the 
vintage scene out of the fourth row into the 
row above. 

The principal divisions of the subjects are 
as follows : — 

I. Agricultural subjects. — The two top rows 
towards the outer end of the wall, and a tiny 
compartment on the extreme outer end of the 
third row. 

II. Potters. — In the next compartment of 
the third row. The firing of the pottery, 



however, can only be placed at the end of the 
vintage scene in the second row. 

III. Making bread, &c— In the third row, 
next to the potters. 

IV. Gardening. — Outer end of fourth row ; 
followed by the vintage scene in the same 
row, continued in the middle of the third row. 

Y. Spinning and weaving. — In the fifth and 
sixth rows at the outer end. 

Very little can be found of the upper rows 
of the inner end. The great block already 
mentioned (p. 32) will probably give us im- 
portant information in regard to this, if means 
can be found to raise it. 

There is a fragment of the titles of Tehuti- 
hetep in large hieroglyphs (pi. xxviii. 1), which 
must have been placed over his head or slightly 
in front of him upon this wall ; in fact, there is 
no other position for it in the tomb. The same 
is the case with fragment No. 2, pi. xxviii., in 
which jars of unguents are placed on tables 
(as in Beni Hasan, Part I., pi. xiii.). The plan 
of the wall does not give room enough for this 
to have been placed behind Tehutihetep. 

The position of the fragment, pi. xxvii. 1, 
is uncertain. The upper row seems to repre- 
sent gleaners in a harvest scene, in which case 
it should be placed at the left-hand end of 
the second and third rows of pi. xxv., but the 
second row fits better with pi. xxix. 1. 

The figure of Tehutihetep must have occu- 
pied nearly the full height of the wall above 
the bottom row. The numerous female figures 
standing before him, with their names above, 
occupy the height of three of the rows of the 
outer end. Several female attendants are 
ranked in two rows beyond them. 

Lastly, in the bottom row of all, at the outer 
end, a number of officials are standing facing 
to the left ; then, after a wide gap, are seen 
the heads of the three sons of Tehutihetep, 
facing likewise to the left and probably form- 
ing the leading figures of a long row. To 
the left of this point the figures face the other 

D 



34 



EL BERSHEH. 



way, and represent the attendants of Tehuti- 
hetep, continued up to the end of the wall. 

I. Agricultural Subjects. 
In the top row (pi. xxv.) are rams being 
driven over the fields by herdsmen with whips. 
The inscriptions name this operation " plough- 
ing " ; probably it consisted in trampling seed 
into the ground which had been left moist by 
the inundation. Similar scenes are common in 
the Ancient Kingdom, but this is perhaps the 
latest known instance. Between the feet 
of the animals are seen weeds. Behind the 
herdsmen is a man with a hoe, and behind 
these again are two or more ploughs drawn by 
oxen (pi. xxxi. 8-12). The use of the hoe was 
probably to break up the clods after the plough 
had turned them up. Several remnants of the 
inscriptions are left, but are too mutilated for 
translation, excepting that over the rams, which 
perhaps reads : — 

kherp rek su meJc su her peru ddebu thes 
" Begin thou it, behold it is coming out, 1 and the 
ground is rising." 

In the second row the flax is being pulled 
out of the ground and the roots trimmed. 
Behind this, bundles of the stems, with red 
capsules, are being laid together and tied. 2 
In the next place a field of barley edged with 
weeds is being reaped with sickles. The ears 
are cut off short and the stalks left standing. 
After an interval we see six asses (pi. xxxi. 
1-6) trampling the corn on a threshing-floor, in 
place of the more usual oxen. A fragment of 
inscription over them is probably part of the 
song of the threshers, of which we can read — 

hi sep sen hi em W 

" Thresh, thresh, thresh again with threshing." 



1 I.e., the field is coming out of the water after the inun- 
dation. 

2 In the XVIIIth Dynasty tomb of Paheri, the seed 
capsules are torn off by means of a comb, but this is never 
shown in the earlier tombs. 



At the end of the third row two men are 
uprooting long-bearded corn (pi. xxvii. 4). 
The inscription reads : — 

uha shem, " pulling up the harvest." 

II. Potters. 
Beyond these are three potters, seated (pi. 
xxv.). The first is moulding tubes with the 
hand, the broader end of the tube resting on a 
smooth conical stand ; the second is turning a 
wheel with his hand while he fashions a pot, 
the wheel being pivoted on a cylindrical pillar ; 
the third has a table in front of him, upon 
which, according to Wilkinson's copy, a vase is 
being formed. Beyond are two assistants ; one 
of them appears to be taking away a vase, the 
other kneading the clay. Over the last are 
signs forming the word qed, meaning "to 
make pottery." Above are two rows of pots. 
For the termination of this scene we have to 
look beyond that of the agricultural scene at 
the end of the second row (pi. xxvii. 2). Here 
are two blazing furnaces, undoubtedly kilns for 
firing pots. The kilns are circular ; up to a 
certain height the walls are solid, excepting 
that an opening is left at the base on one 
side; the upper part, however, is built up 
higher, with a large opening on one side, 
and, in fact, the part that is thus built up is 
probably only a screen against the wind. 3 

III. Making Bread, Sfc. 
Beyond the potters in the third row some 
figures, chiefly of women, are making bread, 
&c. (pi. xxv.). First is a man crouched, with 
his hands on a table in front of him ; above is 
the inscription art hesa, "making dough." 
Next, a woman seated on the ground holds in 
her hands an elongated object ; the inscription 
above may be read men at, "a roll of wheat- 
dough(?)." 



3 It is remarkable that the openings are both on one side. 



SCENES FROM RUINED RIGHT-HAND WALL. 



35 



After a gap we see loaves of bread on 
mats (pi. xxxi. 7), then a woman mixing or 
pounding grain called art dget set at. The 
two kinds of aget called set and at are fre- 
quently found in lists of offerings. In the 
next picture " the white and green sliest " 
are being prepared. 

IV. Gardening Scene. 

In the fourth row are the remains of a 
gardening scene. At the right-hand end is a 
tree, growing, surrounded by a ring of earth 
to retain the water, a stream of which is being 
poured upon its roots (pi. xxvii. 9). A gar- 
dener is carrying a yoke of water-pots on the 
right (pi. xxvii. 10). Beyond is a plot of 
ground (pi. xxv.) divided into squares by 
channels for irrigation, as is still done in 
Egypt. This is all coloured green. Above it 
is another green mass, probably intended to 
represent the vegetation growing on the plot ; 
in this can be distinguished some tall bushes. 
A gardener is kneeling, putting in or taking 
out a plant ; two others are emptying their 
water-jars upon the plot, and two behind them 
carry bowls of water. Here is an interesting 
example of drawing without perspective : we 
have already noted that the vegetation is 
placed above the figure of the plot ; we further 
see that the feet of the gardeners stand on the 
border line between the plot and the vegeta- 
tion. According to the Egyptian notions this 
is quite logical, for their artists could not 
better represent the fact that the feet were 
upon the surface of the ground beneath the 
vegetation. Above the heads of the figures 
are heaps of fruit, &c, on mats and in baskets, 
and a row of plants in pots. 

Beyond is a trellised vine, and two men 
gathering bunches of grapes into baskets. 
Some very small chips of painting show leaves 
and fruits of the cucumber, but beyond the 
scrap of a flower shown in the plate, below the 



stand of a vase, 1 they do not admit of repro- 
duction. 

Further on is a group of five men pressing 
the juice from the grapes (pi. xxxi. 7) : the 
latter have been put into a great straining bag, 
which is being energetically twisted by means 
of poles put through the looped ends ; four 
men twist the poles, while another places him- 
self horizontally between them to push them 
apart, and so keep the bag at a full stretch. 
The tub into which the juice should fall is 
broken away. Behind the group are jars, no 
doubt full of liquid. 2 

Another method by which the juice was 
extracted from the grapes is shown in the 
next row above (pi. xxvii. 2), after the bread- 
making scene. A horizontal pole is placed 
upon supports over a wine-press, and men 
clinging to the pole tread the grapes. 

V. Spinning and Weaving. 

At the outer end of Rows 5 and 6 are the 
scenes of spinning and weaving (pi. xxvi.). 
Towards the left-hand end we see a woman 
seated on the ground, with a bowl and lump of 
fibre before her. Probably she took a handful 
of the fibre and laid it in the bowl in front 
of her ; when well moistened, she drew it 
out in her hands, and softened it by chewing. 
After this had been done sufficiently, and 
perhaps a loosely compacted twine had been 
produced, it was laid in the second bowl to 
keep damp, while the standing figure spun it 
into a firm thread with her spindle. We 
see the seated figure stretching out her two 
hands in front of her face, with a thread 
between them held in her mouth. The thread 
seems to end in the first bowl ; but there is 
certainly also a line from one bowl to the 
other. From the second bowl the line passes 



1 PI. xxvii. 7 ; the fragments referred to are in the British 
Museum. 

" Cf. Beni Hasan, Part I., pi. xii. 

D 2 



36 



EL BERSHEH. 



to the left hand of the standing figure and 
thence down to the spindle, which is twisted 
on the right thigh. The right leg is bent 
with a natural gesture by raising the foot. 
One of the spinners stands apparently on a 
raised platform. 1 

The following groups are very similar. At 
the right-hand end rope-making seems to be 
represented, no doubt with palm- fibre. At the 
top are some looped ropes, pegged out, it may 
be to dry. A woman, bending over, has a 
rope passed round her knees ; the fracture has 
carried away the rest of the group, which 
probably showed another figure forcibly twist- 
ing the rope. 2 

In the sixth row weaving is represented. 
A woman is seated at a horizontal loom, the 
working of which is not easy to understand. 
Behind her were two women seated, gather- 
ing together threads into a baud from a tray 
of twelve divisions, each containing a ball (?) 
of material. Under the end of the horizontal 
loom was a vase, and apparently a conical- 
pointed cake. At the extreme right hand is a 
fragment of an inscription — seMiet, " weaving." 

There are only two fragments of the wall- 
painting that can be placed on the inner half 
of the wall. The position of one, pi. xxix. 1, 
is certain. Men are probably filling orna- 
mental jars with condiments, and levelling the 
contents. 3 The second fragment, pi. xxvii. 1, 
shows portions of two rows; the lower one 
seems to be the upper portion of the scene last 
mentioned, and above are two women carrying 
shallow baskets, apparently in a field of corn. 
This fragment should perhaps be placed among 
the agricultural scenes. 



1 As at Beni Hasan (Part II., pis. iv. and xiii.). 

2 Cf. Dumichen, ResuMaie, pi. viii. Virey, Tombeau de 
Rekhmara, pi. xiii., for scenes of rope-making. 

3 With the same action as in Beni Hasan, Part I., pi. xii. 
and xxix. (fourth row to the left of doorway). 



This closes the series representing the 
occupations. The main group on the wall 
consists of the spectators, namely, Tehutihetep 
with a row of his female relatives, all standing. 
Of Tehutihetep himself only the point of the 
tunic is visible, and a fragment of his titles at 
the top in short columns ending in a horizontal 
line. Immediately in front of him is his wife, 
"priestess of Hathor, Hathorhetep," holding 
a fly-flap in her left hand. The right hand 
bangs down the side. She wears a fillet round 
her head, tied at the back, with a papyrus 
flower at the knot, one long end and one short 
falling down behind. Next is a mutilated 
figure of a lady, very similar to the last, with 
one arm down the side, the other raised to 
the breast and apparently holding a fly-flap 
(pi. xxviii. 3, 4). 

The rest of these figures are somewhat 
smaller (pi. xxix. 2). The third has both arms 
down the sides; the fourth has the right arm 
down the side, the left bent up to the breast, 
but the hand open and empty; the fifth has 
both arms down the sides. 

In the representation of the next three figures 
there are notable changes (pi. xxix. 2 and 
frontispiece). On their breasts they wear 
pectorals, the left arm is raised holding a lotus 
flower, the hair is gathered on to the right side 
of the head into the lock signifying youth, and 
two of them (the seventh and eighth) show a 
remarkable chaplet of lotus flowers, the first 
white, the second blue; the sixth doubtless 
wore a similar chaplet ; and it is most probable 
that the ninth, the much mutilated figure 
beyond, should be counted in the same group, 
since her left arm is raised. 

Last of all are two figures with the arms 
down. Remains of the ordinary female wig 
may still be seen on one of them (pi. xxx). 

Thus we appear to have four groups of the 
female relations, and it may be said at once 
that the inscriptions confirm the evidence of 
the pictures. The first two represent the wife 



FIGURES OF TEHUTTHETEP'S FAMILY. 



37 



Hathorhetep, and presumably the mother, Sat- 
kheper-ka, of Tehutihetep. Next, the third to 
the fifth are adult figures, not easy to identify. 
Then follow evidently four daughters (the sixth 
to the ninth), and presumably two sisters of 
Tehutihetep (the tenth and eleventh). 

As to the inscriptions, that above the first 
figure may be restored : — 



«<=» 



c* <=> 



n 



hemt-ef mert-ef hen neter Het-heru 
mert-es nebt per Het-heru-hetep 

" His wife whom he loves, the priestess 
of Hathor whom she loves, the lady 
of the house, Hathor-hetep." 



1! 



For the fifth and sixth we fortunately have 
the inscription on a fragment of sculpture in 
the museum of Gizeh, identified as from this 
tomb by Mr. Fraser. His copy is as follows : — 



1. 



2. 



5. 



^ /wvws. 
<0 



? n 



o 



AA/WW 



ra 



o 



o 
% 

a D 



o -o 



<* o 



(1) Sat-ef net Met-ef mert-ef (2) net set db-ef 
drert hesest (3) -ef em khert heru (4) ent ra 
neb Neb-Unut (5) dm Met mert-ef drert (6) hesest- 
ef em khert heru (7) ent ra neb Zehutihetep 

" (1) His daughter of his body, his beloved one (2) of 
the place of his heart, who does that which he 
praises (3) in that which belongs to the day (4) 
of every day (i.e. wins his praise daily), Nub-Unut. 
(5) The AnTchet, his beloved one, (6) who wins 
his praise (7) daily (as before), Tehutihetep." 

The original position of this block is quite 
certain. The daughter Nub-Unut is the only 



one represented elsewhere in the tomb ; she 
was therefore the favourite and the eldest, and 
would naturally be put first among the 
daughters. The inscription of the Aiikhet-l&dy , 
whatever the meaning of the Egyptian word 
may be, 1 must therefore be applied to the fifth 
figure ; and the third and fourth are doubtless 
of similar rank or relationship. Possibly that 
group represents the favourite concubines of 
Tehutihetep. 

The inscriptions above figures Nos. 7 and 8 
are partly preserved. They read as follows : — 

No. 8. (1) [Sat-ef net Met-ef] mert-ef (2) net set 
db-ef drert hesest- (3) ef ra neb Sat-hez-hetep 

No. 7. (4) Sat-ef net Met-ef mert-ef (5) net set 
db-ef drert hesest- (6) ef ra neb Sat-kheper-ka 

No. 8. (1) his daughter of his body, his beloved one 

of the place of his heart, who wins his praise every 

day, Sat-hez-hetep. 
No. 7. (4) his daughter of his body, his beloved one 

of the place of his heart, who wins his praise every 

day, Sat-kheper-ka. 

For the last two figures we have a fragment 
of an inscription over No. 11. The fragment, 
pi. xxx. 1, almost certainly belongs here, 

n AAAAAA 

although the 11 [<=>] is written in the opposite 

direction to the mer-ef (sic) below. Probably 

the inscription should be read sew[£] ef mert 

ef, "his (i.e. Tehutihetep's) sister who 

loves him." 

Beyond these groups there are female atten- 
dants, facing them, in two rows. In the upper 
row is a woman holding a revolving fan. 2 The 
action of her left arm is uncertain ; probably 
she assists in upholding the box which is over 
her shoulder. This must also be supported by 
the next figure, who holds down in her right 
hand a boomerang-shaped instrument, which 
probably must be interpreted as a pair of cas- 
tanets. The first of these figures seems to be 

1 See above, p. 8. 

2 Of. Beni Hasan, Part I., pi. xii., behind the harpers on 
the left of the false door. 



38 



EL BERSHEH. 



the Athy l Sat-hez-hetep. Of the second figure 

only a fragment of the name remains, A 

Two other figures are shown in the lower 
row. One bears a fly-flap, the feathers of 
which are coloured blue, and a mirror in its 
case; she seems to be the mendt, "nurse." 
The second carries an instrument terminating 
in a long staff. Whether or no there were 
more figures behind these groups, it is impos- 
sible to say. 

In the bottom row we note that the figures 
at the inner end face down the tomb, and all 
of these represent personal attendants on 
Tehutihetep. Beyond the middle the figures 
face the other way, and consist of Tehuti- 
hetep's sons and the officers of his estates; 
the female members of the family and their 
attendants having been represented above. 

First there are the three sons of Tehuti- 
hetep— Shemsu - em - khau - ef, Usertsen - ankh, 
and Nehera. Then there is a great lacuna, 
representing space for ten or twelve figures. 
Twelve figures follow, and there is a space for 
two more at the end, so there must have been 
twenty-five figures in all behind the sons. 

The inscription belonging to the first is 
lost; that in front of the second is enti em 
sert (?), " He who is in the position of a ser or 
magistrate." 

The third is the mer aht, " superintendent of 
the fields." 

The fourth, the mer sdht Sep sa Zehutihetep 
ar en Uaz-Mu-es, " superintendent of the trea- 
sury, Sep's son Tehutihetep, born of Uaz- 
kau-es." 

The fifth, the mer Menti Nekht ar en Nehht, 
" superintendent of the bakers, Nekht, born of 
Nekht." 

The sixth is the mer shent Nekht ar en Henu, 



1 This title, Athy, is probably the same as atu, which 
occurs in the inscriptions of Una and in tablets of the 
Middle Kingdom, applied to male attendants of the king 
and prince, and probably meaning a bearer of a sedan chair. 



"superintendent of the , Nekht, born 

of Henu." 

The seventh, the mer khent , " super- 
intendent of the 

The eighth, the mer 'per en hesept Sep sa 
Nehera, "steward of the nome, Sep's son 
Nehera." 

The ninth, the [mer] per en hesept Aha sa 
Aha, " steward of the nome, Aha's son Aha." 

The tenth, the mer lean Shedes sa Sep, 
" superintendent of the oxen, Shedes' son 

Sep." 

The eleventh is the mer did Aha-nekht, 
" superintendent of the goats, Aha-nekht." 

The inscription over the heads of these 
officers reads : — 

[maa dn dnu-sen ne tenu renpet] hena dnu-sen ne 
Mert heru net ra neb dp ne seten ne set zet d[n 
ha Merp nesti sab-]ad-mer mer qemhu dri pe neb 

[Zehutihetep neb dmakh\ 

" [Seeing- the bringing of their offerings of each year], 
together with the offerings of each day, counted to 
the king for ever and ever by [the /;a-prince, the 
regulator of the two thrones, the sab-] ad-mer, the 
superintendent of the South, he who belongs to 

every town [Tehutihetep, possessing the 

reward of worth]." 

At the left-hand end is a man bearing a 
staff, a sheaf of arrows, and a long bow. 
Behind him four men carry the sedan-chair, 
beneath which runs the little hound named 
Ankhu. Next is the sdhu Jcefa ab, named 
Nefera ar en Zehutihetep, " Nefera, born of 
Tehutihetep." He carries a long staff, and 
some object suggesting a seal or branding 
instrument. The next man bears a box, and 
behind him another carries a huge shield and 
battle-axe. Then a man with a long tunic 
and cape over his shoulders carries another 
battle-axe of a different form. He is the 
sdhu kef a ab, Nekht-nekhen mes en Apa, "Nekht- 
nekhen, born of Apa." Behind him are two 
other sahu kefa ab. The first, named Khnema 
mes en Zehutihetep, " Khnema, born of Tehuti- 
hetep," carries a long staff and sandals. The 



SCENES AND INSCRIPTIONS OF THE SHRINE. 



39 



second is named Nekhta, and carries a spear 
and a bow. 

There is another gap here, sufficient for five 
or six figures. Then come three attendants with 
long tunics, and at the inner end of the wall 
is a scribe carrying two rolls of papyrus. He is 
the an hen kherp Jcatu nebt, " scribe of the 
box, superintendent of all the works," and is 
named " Nekhta's son Sepa, born of Sepa." 



6. SHRINE. Pi, XXXII.-XXXIV. 

Inner Wall, pi. xxxiii. (Key Plan, x). 

The paintings and inscriptions upon this wall 
are incised and delicately coloured. On the left 
is represented Tehutihetep standing, clothed 
with a small skirt and wearing sandals. He 
holds in his right hand the v baton of office, 
and in his left hand a staff. Hanging from 
his neck is a collar, attached to which is an 
elaborate pectoral (mutilated). 

Above him is an inscription in eight lines 
(six vertical and two horizontal), reading : — 

zed-ef medu kher te-ef ren per-nef khent ef 

en uru dau hesut-d dpten kher tef-d kher neter-d 
det-ef sa em her en net ef her tep da en Vnt 
em seti ! en utet su ti (?) pu en tef-[d] pen (?) erde- 
nef u[d~\ em her net-ef hd kherp nesti ur dua 
her tep da en Unt Kay sa Zehutihetep 

" He speaks before his father name of 

him from whom he came, are not very great these 
my praises before my father and before my god, 
that he should place a son as the chief of his town 
(and) Great Chief of the Hare nome, as the suc- 
cessor of him who begat him, the son of the old 
age of this my father, he placed me as chief of his 
city, the /Sa-prince, regulator of the two thrones, 
great of five/ Great Chief of the Hare nome, Kay's 
son Tehutihetep." 



1 rl jl masc. substantive derived from rl , meaning a person 
holding a place. The inscription is difficult to translate. 

2 It will be recollected that these two titles are those of 
the high priest of Thoth in the Hare nome. 



On the right is represented a standing figure 
of Tehutihetep's father Kay, clothed with an 
elaborate pointed skirt, and wearing sandals. 
In his right hand he holds a staff, and in his 
left a leathern thong (?). A pectoral in the 
shape of a panther's head, with two loops 
above and a tassel below, is suspended from 
his neck by a long variegated band. Above 
him is the inscription reading as follows : — 

zed medu rekht ankhu hd enti menk/i dm 

maa-d nen dr-en nd neb-d ds-d nen dr-ennd neter-d 
erdet-ef sa-d em her net-ef her tep da en TJnt 
em seti 3 en dr ud ha Ma Usertsen mer henu 
neter Neherd sa Kay 

" Speech : O living mortals ! rejoice who is 

excellent amongst them. When I see these things 
which my lord has done for me, and when I reckon 
those things which my god has done for me, in 
that he placed my son as chief of his city and 
Great Chief of the Hare nome, as successor of him 
who made me (the) Aa-prince of the kha pyramid- 
city of Usertsen I. (?), superintendent of the priests, 
Nehera's son Kay." 

Left and Right-hand Walls, pis. xxxii., xxxiv. 
(Key Plan, w, y). 

The scenes and inscriptions on the two sides 
of the shrine are almost identical ; both are 
considerably mutilated, but the one helps to 
complete the other, and we shall therefore treat 
them together. It will be observed that the 
right half of the inner wall is devoted to Kay, 
and the left to Tehutihetep. It seems to be 
the same with the side walls. The right-hand 
wall bears what is probably a figure of Kay, 
identifiable by the fragment of the title 
mentioning the pyramid-city of Usertsen. On 
the left-hand wall there can be no question 
that Tehutihetep is represented, though his 
name and titles are destroyed. 

On each wall the principal personage is seated 
with an altar before him and lists of offerings 
above. The figures are arranged in five rows. 

3 Vide note supra. 



40 



EL BERSHEH. 



Tbe two top rows were devoted to repre- 
sentations of the ceremonies, which may be 
compared with those in the tomb of Amenemhat 
at Beni Hasan. 1 

Row 1 is divided into two compartments. 
In the first we can trace the sem-priest, and 
behind him a lector named Heru-amen-ankh.(?) 
In the next compartment are three kherheb 
priests, kneeling, and above them the inscrip- 
tion : se-aM an Mer-heb asha, "singing services 
by the ordinary lectors." At the end is another 
priest, standing, and above him the inscription : 
zed medn ant red an Mer heb, " speech : lifting 
the foot by the lector." 

Row 2 is divided into five compartments : — 
1st. A man kneeling, washing a table. 
2nd. Det qebeh, " giving water." 
3rd. Seth, " washing" the tray. 
4th. Se-neter, " incense," and fire. 
5th. Zed medu icher heb, "reading by the 
lector." 
Rows 3 and 4. Cutting up oxen and bringing 
offerings. In the third row of the right-hand 
wall there is a good example of pedet des, 
"sharpening the flint knife." In the fourth 
row of the same wall, over the ox, is de-na afui 



1 Vide Beni Hasan, Part I., pi. xvii., cp. also pi. xxxv. 



ne hat, " give me two pieces of flesh first," to 
which the man replies : ary-a hest-ek, " I am 
doing as you will." In the corresponding 
row of the left-hand wall are two inscriptions : 

(1) maa en ka-ef, "offering to his ka" and 

(2) de nenshem, " give a nenshem joint." 

Row 5. Servants bringing offerings of flesh, 
fowl, fruits, &c. The inscriptions over these 
rows on the two walls are mutilated, but, as 
they are identical, we can restore the text from 
the two copies. 

sekhept sethept er hat nzhn dnent em nut-ef em 
heseput-ef enl qemau meh en Tea en er-pa ha semer 
uati en mend est db seten ha, Merp nesti ur det 
Kay sa Zehutihetep neb dmaM 

''Bringing to the altar choice viands, which are 
brought from his towns and his estates of the 
South and North to the Tea of the e^rt-prince, the 
/ia-prince, the beloved confidential friend, the ha- 
prince, regulator of the two thrones, great of five, 
Kay's son Tehutihetep, possessing the reward of 
worth." 

On the left-hand wall we have also three 
smaller inscriptions : — 

(1) maa ne ka-ef, " offering to his ha." 

(2) uab [ne Jca ne] hct Merp nesti Zehutihetep, "pure 
offerings [for the Tea of] the Aa-prince, regulator of 
the two thrones, Tehutihetep." 

(3) maa ne Tcaa-ef, " offering to his has" (plural). 



INDEX. 



Ab-kau, father of Sep, " director of the work " of the 

tomb, 3, 17. 
Abu Simbel, temple of, first excavations at, 3. 
Addaxes, hunting of, 14. 
Agricultural scenes, 33, 34, 36. 
Aha, son of Aha, steward of the nome, 38. 
Aha-nekht, superintendent of goat?, 38. 
Alabaster quarries, 23, 25. 
Ameua-ankku, decorator of the tomb, 3, 20. 
Amenemhat II., 6, 12. 
Ankhet (?), title of, 8, 37. 
Anlch-en-net, title of, 8, 37. 
Ankhu, hound, 38. 
Antelope, shooting of the, 14. 
Antinoe, city of, its site, 1. 
Apa, father of Nehera, an attendant, 32. 
Apa, mother of Nekht-nekhen, 38. 
Architect of the tomb, 3, 17. 
Architectural features, 9. 
Architrave, description of, 12. 

Arundale, F., his drawing of the colossus scene, &c, 4, 22. 
Asyut, tomb of Hepzefa at, 24. 
Athy, title of, 38. 
Avocets, capture of, 26, 31. 

Bankes, W. J., opens temple at Abu Simbel, 3 ; visits El 

Kab, 3 ; discovery of tomb of Tehutihetep, 3 ; his 

drawing of the colossus scene, 5. 
Beechey, H. W., opens temple at Abu Simbel, 3 ; visits 

El Kab, 3 ; discovery of tomb of Tehutihetep, 3. 
Belzoni, G. B., opens temple at Abu Simbel, 3 ; visits El 

Kab, 3. 
Beni Hasan, tombs of, scenes, 2, 25, 28, 29, 33, 36, 37, 40. 
Birds, capture of, 26, 30; feeding of, 31. 
Blackden, M. W., graffiti at Het-nub described, 6. 
Boats and boating scenes, 14, 27, 29. 
Bonomi, J., his drawings of colossus scene, &c, 4, 18, 22. 
Bread-making, scene of, 33, 34. 

Brine, Mr., assists in discovery of tomb of Tehutihetep, 3. 
Brown, Major R. H., photographs colossus scene, 5, 18. 



Brugsch, H., his translation of colossus scene 18. 
Bubales, hunting of, 14. 
Buto, 6, 12. 

Capitals, palm-leaf, 9. 

Cartouches, 12. 

Cattle, stock-taking of, 26-29. 

Ceilings, decoration of, 11. 

Ceremonial of purification, scene of, 15. 

Chabas, F., his translation of colossus scene, 18. 

Children of Tehutihetep, 8. 

Clap-nets, 26, 30. 

Colossus on sledge, its position in tomb, 2 ; described by 

Rosellini, and drawn by Ricci, Bonomi and Arundale, 

4 ; scene of its transport, 17-22 ; description of, 19 ; 

temple for reception, 22 ; sacrifices to, 22 ; its size, 

construction, transport, &c, 23-26. 
Cranes, feeding of, 31. 

Dado, colour of, 11. 

Daughters of Tehutihetep, 8. 

Decoration, system of, 10-11. 

Decorator of the tomb, 3, 20. 

Dep, city of, 13. 

Der en Nakhleh, convent of, 1, 2, 3. 

Dresses of royal personages, priests, warriors, &c, 13, 15, 

17, 19, 20, 21, 22, 28, 32, 36, 39. 
Ducks, capture of, 31. 

Eirund, one of Lepsius's draughtsmen at El Bersheh, 5, note. 

El Bersheh, tombs of, situation, 1, 4 ; discovery of, 3. 

El Kab visited, 3. 

Erman, Ad., translates colossus scene, 18. 

Eshnrunen, mounds of, 1. 

Facade of tomb, description of, 12. 

Family of Tehutihetep, 6. 

Fan, revolving, 37. 

Fish, capture of, 26, 30, 31. 

Fishing, mode of, 31. 



42 



INDEX. 



Fishing scene, 15. 

Fowling, mode of, 30, 31. 

Fowling scenes, 14. 

Fraser, G.W., graffiti at Hetnub, 6; inscription at museum 

of G-izeh, 37. 
Furniture, ivory and ebony, 27, note, 30. 

Gardening scene, 7, 33, 35. 

Gazelles, netting of, 13. 

Geese, species of, 31. 

Genealogical table of family of Tehutibetep, 8. 

Hare, hunting of tbe, 14. 

Hare nome, 1, 23, 39. 

Hathorhetep, wife of Tehutihetep, 8, 26, 36, 37. 

Hay, Robert, 4, 5, 17, 18. 

Hepzefa, tomb of, at Asyut, 24. 

Herds, stock-taking of, 26-29. 

Herdsmen, 28. 

Hermopolis nome, 1 . 

Hermopolis, cbief priest at, 13. 

Henu, father of Nekht, superintendent, 38. 

Heru-amen-ankh, lector, 40. 

Hetnub, quarries of, graffiti there, 6; the colossus brought 

from, 18, 19, 23. 
Hunting scenes, 13, 14. 

Ibex, shooting of the, 14. 

Inner chamber, 9 ; description of, 15. 

Irby, Lieut. C. L., discovery of tomb of Tehutihetep, 3. 

Jackal, hunting of the, 14, 30. 
Jerboa, shooting of the, 14. 

Kahun, discoveries at, 7, note. 

Ifa-statues, 24, 25. 

Ka-y, father of Tehutihetep, 3, 7, 13, 15, 28, 30, 40; 

figure of, in shrine, 39. 
.KTia-pyramid of Usertsen, 7, 39. 
Kheker ornament, 11. 

Khemenu (Hermopolis), city of, its situation, 1. 
Khent-hesert (Thoth), 16. 
Khnema, son of Tehutihetep, 38. 

Leopard, hunting of the, 14. 

Lepsius, C. R., visits El Bersheh, 5 ; colossus scene, &c, 

copied under his direction, 18, 22. 
Lion, hunting of the, 14. 

Maat, goddess, 13. 

Mangles, Capt. S., discovery of tomb of Tehutihetep, 3. 



Maspero, G., his translation of the colossus scene, 18. 
Mehti (?), god, 21. 
Mehti-em-hat, lector, 16. 

Natron, 16. 

Nefer, the treasurer, 32. 

Nefera, son of Tehutihetep, 38. 

Neferyt, the scribe, 28. 

Nehera, grandfather of Tehutihetep, 7, 8. 

Nehera, son of Tehutihetep, 4, note, 8 ; hunting, 14 ; scene 

of purification, 16; transport of colossus, 17; fishing 

scene, 32 ; agricultural scenes, 38. 
Nehera, son of Apa, 32. 
Nehera, son of Sep, steward, 20, 38. 
Nekhen, city of, 13, 23. 
Nekht, son of Henu, superintendent, 38. 
Nekht, son of Nekht, superintendent of bakers, 38. 
Nekht-ankh, father of Sep, "contractor of tomb," 16, 20, 32. 
Nekht-nekhen, son of Apa, 38. 

Nekhta, father of Sepa, superintendent of works, 39. 
Nestor de l'Hote, describes tomb of Tehutihetep, 4, 5, 16, 

17, 18. 
Netting fowl, 26, 30. 

Nubunut, daughter of Tehutihetep, 8, 31, 32, 37. 
Nurse, 38. 

Offerings, scene of, 39, 40. 

Officers, 28, 31, 38. 

Oryxes, capture of, 14. 

Ostriches, driving of, 14. 

Outer chamber, 9; description of, 13. 

Oxen, wild, 14. 

Oxen, sacrifice of, 40; stock-taking, 26-29. 

Painting, style of, in tomb, 11. 

Petrie, Prof. Flinders, his discoveries at Kahun, 7, note ; 

plan of quarries near Tell el Amarna, 23. 
Porcupine, 14. 

Portico, 9; description of, 12. 
Potters at work, scene, 33, 34. 
Ptahshepses, tomb of, statues of, 25. 
Purification, scene of, 14-16. 

Quarries, alabaster, 23, 25. 

Rams trampling in grain, 34. 

Raramun, village of, 2, 3, 4. 

Rashepses, tomb of, its colossi, 25. 

Ricci, Dr., copies the colossus scene, 4, 19. 

Rope-making, scene of, 36. 

Rosellini, Ip., describes colossus scene, 4. 



INDEX. 



43 



Sacrificial scenes, 40. 

Sakkara, tombs of Ptahshepses and Rashepses at, 25. 

Sat-kez-hetep, motber of Tekutinekkt, " maker of tke 
tomb/' 16. 

Sat-bez-hetep, daughter of Tehutibetep, 8, 37. 

Sat-bez-hetep, the fan-bearer, 38. 

Sat-kheper-ka, mother of Tehutihetep, 7, 8, 13, 15, 27, 28, 37. 

Sat-kheper-ka, daughter of Tehutihetep, 8, 37. 

Sebek-a-na, the «a&-priest, 16. 

Sedan-chair, 17 ; its construction, 30; bearers of, 38, note, 

Seh (summer bouse), 26 ; form of, 27, note. 

Sekhet, goddess, 31. 

Sekhti, i.e. fishermen, 31. 

Sep, father of Tehutihetep, superintendent of treasury, 38. 

Sep, father of Nehera, steward of the nome, 38. 

Sep, son of Ab-kau, " director of the work" of the tomb, 
3, 17. 

Sep, sou of Shades, superintendent of oxen, 38. 

Sepa, son of Nekhta, superintendent of the works, agricul- 
tural scene, 39. 

Sepa, son of Nekht-ankh, "constructor of the tomb," 16, 
20, 32. 

Shades, father of Sep, superintendent of oxen, 38. 

Shaft for mummy, 9. 

Shemsu-em-khau-ef, son of Tehutihetep, 8; hunting, 14; 
scene of purification, 16 ; transport of colossus, 17 ; 
fowling, 30 ; fishing, 32 ; agricultural scenes, &c, 38. 

Ships, 29. 

Shrine, 9 ; description of, 39 ; ceremonial scenes in, 40. 

Sons of Tehutihetep, 8. 

Spinning and weaving, scenes of, 33, 35, 36. 

Stags, 14. 

Statues in tombs, 24, 25. 

Stock-taking of herds, scene of, 26-29. 

Tehutihetep, bis titles, 1, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 22, 32, 
33 ; " son of Kay," 3 ; chronology, 6 ; genealogy, 8 ; 
hunting, 13; fowling, 14; fishing, 15; ceremony of 



purification, 15; transport of colossus, 17; statue of, 
in temple for colossus, 22; stock-taking of herds, 
26-29; superintending agricultural, &c, labours, 33; 
capture of birds and fish, 26, 30 ; figures of, in shrine, 
39. 

Tehutihetep, family of, 6-8 ; its genealogy, 8 ; figures of, 
37, 38. 

Tehutihetep, tomb of, general description, 1, 2, 9; approach, 
2 ; date and discovery, 3 ; destruction, 5 ; scenes and 
inscriptions, 9-40 ; architectural features, 9 ; present 
state, 10; decorations, 10, 11 ; cartouches in, 12. 

Tehutibetep, son of Sep, superintendent of treasury, 38. 

Tehutinekht, son of Sat-bez-hetep, "maker of the tomb," 16. 

Tell-el-Amarna, quarries near, 23. 

Tbereta, town of, 21. 

Thoth, titles of the high priest of, 7, 13. 

Titles of Tehutihetep, 6, 7, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 22, 32, 33. 

Transport of the colossus, how effected, 23, 24; various 
scenes of, 25. 

TJaz-kau-es, mother of Tehutihetep, " superintendent of 

treasury," 38. 
Usertsen II., 6, 12. 

TJsertsen II. (?), Ma-pyramid of, 7, 39. 
Usertsen III., 6, 12. 
Usertsen-ankb, son of Tehutibetep, 4, note, 8; hunting, 14; 

scene of purification, 16; transport of colossus, 17; 

fishing scene, 32 ; agricultural scene, 38. 

Weaving and spinning, scene of, 33, 35, 36. 

Weidenbach, E., one of Lepsius's draughtsmen at El 

Bersheb, 5, note ; his copy of the colossus, 19. 
Westcar Papyrus, 30. 
Wilkinson, Sir Gardner, bis records of tomb of Tehutihetep, 

4, 5, 32 ; colossus scene, 5. 
Wine-press, 35. 
Wrestling and fighting scene, 14. 

Zamu (troops), 18, note. 



PRINTED BY GILBERT AND RIVINGTON, LIMITED, ST. JOHN'S HOUSE, CLERKBNWELL ROAD, E.C. 



LIST OF PLATES 

(WITH REFERENCES TO THE PAGES ON WHICH THET ARE DESCRIBED). 



PLATE 



I. Frontispiece. Portrait of a daughter of 

Tehutihetep [M.W.B. 1 ] . 
II. Plan, sections, and elevation [G.W.F.] . 
ill. Details of doorways [G.W.F.] 
iv. Details of column (restored) [G.W.F. & 

M.W.B.] 

v. Inscriptions on jambs and architraves 

(restored) [P.E.N.]. 
vi. Ceiling inscriptions [P.E.N.] . 

Outer Chamber. 

vii. Right-hand wall [H.C.] .... 
vili, Inner wall (right side) [H.C.] 
ix. Inner wall (left side) [H.C.] . 

Inner Chamber 

x. Outer wail (right side) [H.C.] 
xi. Outer wall (left side) [H.C] . 



PAGE 
11 

9-10 
9-10 

9-10 

12-13 
13 



13-14 

14-15 

15 



15 
16 



Inner Chamber (continued), 
xn. Left-hand wall (entire) [H.C.] 
xiii.-xvi. Left-hand wall (upper rows) [H.C 
& P.E.N.] .... 
xvii.-xix. Left-hand wall (lower rows) [H.C] 
xx. Inner wall (entire) [H.C] 
xxi. Inner wall : The pool of wild fowl 

[H.C] 

xxii.-xxiii. Inner wall (lower rows) [H.C] 

xxiv. Right-hand wall (entire) [H.C. & 

P.E.N.] 

xxv.-xxxi. Right-hand wall, Fragments [H.C 
&P.E.N.] . 

Shrine. 

xxxii. Left-hand wall [H.C] . 
xxxiii. Inner wall [H.C] 
xxxiv. Right-hand wall [H.C] 



16-32 

17-26 
26-30 
30-32 

30 
31-32 

32-39 
32-39 



39-40 

39 

39-40 



• The initials are those of Messrs. P. E. Newbebby, M. W. Biackden, G. W. Fbaseb, and Howabd Cabteb. 



El Bersheh. 



Tom 



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Plan of Tomb and Mummy Pit (restored). 




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2. 



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Front Elevation (restored) 



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Tomb No. 2. 



Plate III. 






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El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate V. 






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BACK. 



INSCRIPTIONS ON THE ARCHITRAVE (RESTORED). 



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Tomb No. 2. 



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KHEKER ORNAMENT 




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Tomb No. 2. 



Plate X. 




INNER CHAMBER. 

OUTER WALL (RIGHT SIDE). 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XL 




INNER CHAMBER. 

OUTER WALL (LEFT SIDE). 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb N< 






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Plate XII. 






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El Bersheh. 



Ton 




Seale 1 : 5. 



INNE 

LEFT 



Plate XI 




El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XIV. 




Q I 



P.E.N. 
The signs in full black are facsimiled from 
fragments in the British Museum. 



Seale 1:5. 



INNER CHAMBER. 

left hand wall (b). 



El Bersheh. 



Scale 1:5 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XV. 



^?PAm>ct™mM>is;fpnsi>^ 



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Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XVI. 



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Scale 1 : 5. 



No. 2. 



Plate XVII. 




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Scale 1 : 5. 



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Plate XIX. 



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MBER, 

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Tomb No. 2. 




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THE POOL 



Mo. 2. 



Plate XXI. 




WILD FOWL. 



El Bersheh. 




Scale 1 : 5. 



IN 

WEST END OF 



No. 2. 



Plate XXII. 




HAMBER. 

WALL: ROWS 2 AND 3. 



El Bersheh. 



To 




Scale 1:5. 



INNEF 

WEST END OF INN 



No. 2. 



Plate XXIII. 




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VALL: ROWS 4- AND 5. 



El Bersheh. 



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INNEF 

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Plate XXVII. 





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HAMBER. 

D WALL (C). 



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Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XXVIII. 




Scale 1 : 5 



INNER CHAMBER. 

RIGHT HAND WALL. (FRAGMENTS). 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb I 



INNER CHAMBER. 

RIGHT HAND WALL. (FRAGMENTS). 



Scale 1 : 5 




Plate XXIX. 




El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XXX 




Scale 1:5. 



INNER CHAMBER. 

RIGHT HAND WALL. (FRAGMENTS). 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XXXI. 




^2F 



Scale 1 : 5. 



INNER CHAMBER. 

RIGHT HAND WALL. (FRAGMENTS). 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XXXII. 




Scale 1 : 5. 



SHRINE. 

LEFT HAND WALL. 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XXXIII. 




Scale 1 : 10. 



SHRINE. 

INNER WALL. 



El Bersheh. 



Tomb No. 2. 



Plate XXXIV. 



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SHRINE. 

RIGHT HAND WALL. 



BINDING SECT. JUL 2' 



/ 



DT Egypt Exploration Society. 

57 Archaeological Survey of 

E326 Egypt ^ 

no. 3 Memoir <*' 



^ .f. it 



(krr\ ■ 



CIRCULATE AS MONOGRA 

PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



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