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List of Christians in science and technology

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This is a list of Christians in science and technology. Persons in this list should have their Christianity as relevant to their notable activities or public life, and who have publicly identified themselves as Christians or as of a Christian denomination.

Before the eighteenth century[edit]

  • Robert Grosseteste (c.1175–1253): Bishop of Lincoln, he was the central character of the English intellectual movement in the first half of the 13th century and is considered the founder of scientific thought in Oxford. He had a great interest in the natural world and wrote texts on the mathematical sciences of optics, astronomy and geometry. He affirmed that experiments should be used in order to verify a theory, testing its consequences and added greatly to the development of the scientific method.[1]
  • Albertus Magnus (c.1193–1280): Patron saint of scientists in Catholicism who may have been the first to isolate arsenic. He wrote that: "Natural science does not consist in ratifying what others have said, but in seeking the causes of phenomena." Yet he rejected elements of Aristotelianism that conflicted with Catholicism and drew on his faith as well as Neo-Platonic ideas to "balance" "troubling" Aristotelian elements.[note 1][2]
  • Nicole Oresme (c.1323–1382): Theologian and bishop of Lisieux, he was one of the early founders and popularizers of modern sciences. One of his many scientific contributions is the discovery of the curvature of light through atmospheric refraction.[3]
  • Nicholas of Cusa (1401–1464): Catholic cardinal and theologian who made contributions to the field of mathematics by developing the concepts of the infinitesimal and of relative motion. His philosophical speculations also anticipated Copernicusheliocentric world-view.[4]
  • Otto Brunfels (1488–1534): A theologian and botanist from Mainz, Germany. His Catalogi virorum illustrium is considered to be the first book on the history of evangelical sects that had broken away from the Catholic Church. In botany his Herbarum vivae icones helped earn him acclaim as one of the "fathers of botany".[5]
  • William Turner (c.1508–1568): He is sometimes called the "father of English botany" and was also an ornithologist. Religiously he was arrested for preaching in favor of the Reformation. He later became a Dean of Wells Cathedral, but was expelled for nonconformity.[6]
  • Ignazio Danti (1536–1586): As bishop of Alatri he convoked a diocesan synod to deal with abuses. He was also a mathematician who wrote on Euclid, an astronomer, and a designer of mechanical devices.[7]
  • Francis Bacon (1561–1626): Considered among the fathers of empiricism and is credited with establishing the inductive method of experimental science via what is called the scientific method today.[8][9]
  • Laurentius Gothus (1565–1646): A professor of astronomy and Archbishop of Uppsala. He wrote on astronomy and theology.[10]
  • Pierre Gassendi (1592–1655): Catholic priest who tried to reconcile Atomism with Christianity. He also published the first work on the Transit of Mercury and corrected the geographical coordinates of the Mediterranean Sea.[11]
  • Anton Maria of Rheita (1597–1660): Capuchin astronomer. He dedicated one of his astronomy books to Jesus Christ, a "theo-astronomy" work was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin Mary, and he wondered if beings on other planets were "cursed by original sin like humans are."[12]
  • Blaise Pascal (1623–1662): Jansenist thinker;[note 2] well known for Pascal's law (physics), Pascal's theorem (math), and Pascal's Wager (theology).[13]
  • Nicolas Steno (1638–1686): Lutheran convert to Catholicism, his beatification in that faith occurred in 1987. As a scientist he is considered a pioneer in both anatomy and geology, but largely abandoned science after his religious conversion.[14][15]
  • Isaac Barrow (1630–1677): English theologian, scientist, and mathematician. He wrote Expositions of the Creed, The Lord's Prayer, Decalogue, and Sacraments and Lectiones Opticae et Geometricae.[16]
  • Juan Lobkowitz (1606–1682): Cistercian monk who did work on Combinatorics and published astronomy tables at age 10. He also did works of theology and sermons.[17]
  • Seth Ward (1617–1689): Anglican Bishop of Salisbury and Savilian Chair of Astronomy from 1649–1661. He wrote Ismaelis Bullialdi astro-nomiae philolaicae fundamenta inquisitio brevis and Astronomia geometrica. He also had a theological/philosophical dispute with Thomas Hobbes and as a bishop was severe toward nonconformists.[18]
  • Robert Boyle (1627–1691): Prominent scientist and theologian who argued that the study of science could improve glorification of God.[19][20] A strong Christian apologist, he is considered one of the most important figures in the history of Chemistry.

1701–1800 A.D. (18th century)[edit]

  • John Ray (1627–1705): English botanist who wrote The Wisdom of God manifested in the Works of the Creation. (1691) The John Ray Initiative[21] of Environment and Christianity is also named for him.[22]
  • Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716): He was a philosopher who developed the philosophical theory of the Pre-established harmony; he is also most noted for his optimism, e.g., his conclusion that our Universe is, in a restricted sense, the best possible one that God could have created. He also made major contributions to mathematics, physics, and technology. He created the Stepped Reckoner and his Protogaea concerns geology and natural history. He was a Lutheran who worked with convert to Catholicism John Frederick, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg in hopes of a reunification between Catholicism and Lutheranism.[23]
  • Stephen Hales (1677–1761): A Copley Medal winning scientist significant to the study of plant physiology. As an inventor designed a type of ventilation system, a means to distill sea-water, ways to preserve meat, etc. In religion he was an Anglican curate who worked with the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge and for a group working to convert black slaves in the West Indies.[24]
  • Firmin Abauzit (1679–1767): A physicist and theologian. He translated the New Testament into French and corrected an error in Newton's Principia.[25]
  • Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772): He did a great deal of scientific research with the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences having commissioned work by him.[26] His religious writing is the basis of Swedenborgianism and several of his theological works contained some science hypotheses, most notably the Nebular hypothesis for the origin of the Solar System.[27]
  • Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777), Swiss anatomist, physiologist known as "the father of modern physiology." A Protestant, he was involved in the erection of the Reformed church in Göttingen, and, as a man interested in religious questions, he wrote apologetic letters which were compiled by his daughter under the name .[28]
  • Leonhard Euler (1707–1783): A significant mathematician and physicist, see List of topics named after Leonhard Euler. The son of a pastor, he wrote Defense of the Divine Revelation against the Objections of the Freethinkers and is also commemorated by the Lutheran Church on their Calendar of Saints on May 24.[29]
  • Antoine Lavoisier (1743–1794): Is considered the "father of modern chemistry". He is known for his discovery of oxygen's role in combustion, developing chemical nomenclature, developing a preliminary periodic table of elements, and the law of conservation of mass. He was a Catholic and defender of scripture.[30]
  • Herman Boerhaave (1668–1789), remarkable Dutch physician and botanist known as the founder of clinical teaching. A collection of his religious thoughts on medicine, translated from Latin into English, has been compiled under the name Boerhaaveìs Orations.[31]
  • John Michell (1724–1793): English clergyman who provided pioneering insights in a wide range of scientific fields, including astronomy, geology, optics, and gravitation.[32][33]
  • Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718–1799): Mathematician appointed to a position by Pope Benedict XIV. After her father died she devoted her life to religious studies, charity, and ultimately became a nun.[34]

1801–1900 A.D. (19th century)[edit]

Further information: List of parson-naturalists
  • Joseph Priestley (1733–1804): Nontrinitarianism clergyman who wrote the controversial work History of the Corruptions of Christianity. He is credited with discovering oxygen.[note 3]
  • Isaac Milner (1750–1820): Lucasian Professor of Mathematics known for work on an important process to fabricate Nitrous acid. He was also an evangelical Anglican who co-wrote Ecclesiastical History of the Church of Christ with his brother and played a role in the religious awakening of William Wilberforce. He also led to William Frend being expelled from Cambridge for a purported attack by Frend on religion.[35]
  • Samuel Vince (1749–1821): Cambridge astronomer and clergyman. He wrote Observations on the Theory of the Motion and Resistance of Fluids and The credibility of Christianity vindicated, in answer to Mr. Hume’s objections. He won the Copley Medal in 1780, before the period dealt with here ended.[36]
  • Alessandro Volta (1745–1827): Italian physicist who invented the first electric battery. The unit Volt was named after him.[37]
  • Andre Marie Ampere (1775–1836): One of the founders of classical electromagnetism. The unit for electric current, Ampere, is named after him.[38]
  • Olinthus Gregory (1774–1841): He wrote Lessons Astronomical and Philosophical in 1793 and became mathematical master at the Royal Military Academy in 1802. An abridgment of his 1815 Letters on the Evidences of Christianity was done by the Religious Tract Society.[39]
  • John Abercrombie (1780–1844), Scottish physician and Christian philosopher[40] who created the a textbook about neuropathology.
  • Mary Anning (1799–1847): Paleontologist who became known for discoveries of certain fossils in Lyme Regis, Dorset. Anning was devoutly religious, and attended a Congregational, then Anglican church.[41]
  • William Kirby (1759–1850): A Parson-naturalist who wrote On the Power Wisdom and Goodness of God. As Manifested in the Creation of Animals and in Their History, Habits and Instincts and was a founding figure in British entomology.[42][43]
  • William Buckland (1784–1856): Anglican priest/geologist who wrote Vindiciae Geologiae; or the Connexion of Geology with Religion explained. He was born in 1784, but his scientific life did not begin before the period discussed herein.[44]
  • Marshall Hall (1790–1857), notable English physiologist who contributed with anatomical understanding and proposed a number of techniques in medical science. A devout Christian, his religious thoughts were collected in the biographical book Memoirs of Marshall Hall, by his widow (1861). He was also an abolitionist who opposed slavery on religious grounds. He believed slavery to be a sin against God and denial of the Christian faith.[45]
  • Lars Levi Læstadius (1800–1861): Botanist who started a revival movement within Lutheranism called Laestadianism. This movement is among the strictest forms of Lutheranism. As a botanist he has the author citation Laest and discovered four species.[46]
  • Edward Hitchcock (1793–1864): Geologist, paleontologist, and Congregationalist pastor. He worked on Natural theology and wrote on fossilized tracks.[47][48]
  • Benjamin Silliman (1779 –1864), chemist and science educator at Yale; the first person to distill petroleum, and a founder of the American Journal of Science, the oldest scientific journal in the United States. An outspoken Christian,[49] he was an old-earth creationist who openly rejected materialism.
  • Bernhard Riemann (1826–1866): The son of a pastor, [note 4] he entered the University of Göttingen at the age of 19, originally to study philology and theology in order to become a pastor and help with his family's finances. Changed to mathematics upon the suggestion of Gauss.[50] He made lasting contributions to mathematical analysis, number theory, and differential geometry, some of them enabling the later development of general relativity.
  • William Whewell (1794–1866): A professor of mineralogy and moral philosophy. He wrote An Elementary Treatise on Mechanics in 1819 and Astronomy and General Physics considered with reference to Natural Theology in 1833.[51][52] He is the wordsmith who coined the terms "scientist", "physicist", "anode", "cathode" and many other commonly used scientific words.
  • Michael Faraday (1791–1867): A Glasite church elder for a time, he discussed the relationship of science to religion in a lecture opposing Spiritualism.[53][54] He is known for his contributions in establishing electromagnetic theory and his work in chemistry such as establishing electrolysis.
  • James David Forbes (1809 – 1868) physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology. He was a devout Christian as can be seen in the work "Life and Letters of James David Forbes" (1873).
  • Charles Babbage (1791–1871), mathematician and analytical philosopher known as the first computer scientist who originated the idea of a programmable computer. He wrote the Ninth Bridgewater Treatise,[55][56] and the Passages from the Life of a Philosopher (1864) where he raised arguments to rationally defend the belief in miracles.[57]
  • Adam Sedgwick (1785–1873): Anglican priest and geologist whose, A Discourse on the Studies of the University discusses the relationship of God and man. In science he won both the Copley Medal and the Wollaston Medal.[58]
  • Temple Chevallier (1794–1873): Priest and astronomer who did Of the proofs of the divine power and wisdom derived from the study of astronomy. He also founded the Durham University Observatory, hence the Durham Shield is pictured.[59]
  • John Bachman (1790–1874): Wrote numerous scientific articles and named several species of animals. He also was a founder of the Lutheran Theological Southern Seminary and wrote works on Lutheranism.[60]
  • Robert Main (1808–1878): Anglican priest who won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1858. Robert Main also preached at the British Association of Bristol.[61]
  • James Clerk Maxwell (1831–1879): Although Clerk as a boy was taken to Presbyterian services by his father and to Anglican services by his aunt, while still a young student at Cambridge he underwent an Evangelical conversion that he described as having given him a new perception of the Love of God.[note 5] Maxwell's evangelicalism "committed him to an anti-positivist position."[62][63] He is known for his contributions in establishing electromagnetic theory (Maxwell's Equations) and work on the chemical kinetic theory of gases.
  • James Bovell (1817–1880), Canadian physician and microscopst who was member of Royal College of Physicians. He was the mentor of William Osler, as well as an Anglican minister and religious author who wrote about natural theology.[64]
  • Andrew Pritchard (1804 –1882): an English naturalist and natural history dealer who made significant improvements to microscopy and wrote the standard work on aquatic micro-organisms. He devoted much energy to the chapel he attended, Newington Green Unitarian Church.
  • Gregor Mendel (1822–1884): Augustinian Abbot who was the "father of modern genetics" for his study of the inheritance of traits in pea plants.[65] He preached sermons at Church, one of which deals with how Easter represents Christ's victory over death.[66]
  • Philip Henry Gosse (1810–1888): Marine biologist who wrote Aquarium (1854), and A Manual of Marine Zoology (1855–56). He is more famous, or infamous, as a Christian Fundamentalist who coined the idea of Omphalos (theology).[67]
  • Asa Gray (1810–1888): His Gray's Manual remains a pivotal work in botany. His Darwiniana has sections titled "Natural selection not inconsistent with Natural theology", "Evolution and theology", and "Evolutionary teleology." The preface indicates his adherence to the Nicene Creed in concerning these religious issues.[68]
  • Julian Tenison Woods (1832–1889): Co-founder of the Sisters of St Joseph of the Sacred Heart who won a Clarke Medal shortly before death. A picture from Waverley Cemetery, where he's buried, is shown.[69]
  • James Dwight Dana (1813–1895): A geologist, mineralogist, and zoologist. He received the Copley Medal, Wollaston Medal, and the Clarke Medal. He also wrote a book titled Science and the Bible and his faith has been described as "both orthodox and intense."[70]
  • John William Dawson (1820–1899), Canadian geologist who was the first President of the Royal Society of Canada and served as President of both the British and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. A presbyterian, he spoke against Darwin's theory and came to write The Origin of the World, According to Revelation and Science (1877) where he put together his theological and scientific views.[71]
  • Armand David (1826–1900): Catholic missionary to China and member of the Lazarists who considered his religious duties to be his principal concern. He was also a botanist with the author abbreviation David and as a zoologist he described several species new to the West.[72]

1901–2000 A.D. (20th century)[edit]

2001–today (21st century)[edit]

Currently living[edit]

Biomedical Sciences[edit]


  • Peter Agre (born January 30, 1949) is an American physician, Bloomberg Distinguished Professor, and molecular biologist at Johns Hopkins University who was awarded the 2003 Nobel Prize in Chemistry (which he shared with Roderick MacKinnon) for his discovery of aquaporins. Agre is a Lutheran. [207]
  • Gerhard Ertl (born 1936): He is a 2007 Nobel Prize winner in Chemistry. He has said in an interview that "I believe in God. (...) I am a Christian and I try to live as a Christian (...) I read the Bible very often and I try to understand it."[208]
  • Brian Kobilka (born 1955): He is an American Nobel Prize winner of Chemistry in 2012, and is professor in the departments of Molecular and Cellular Physiology at Stanford University School of Medicine. Kobilka attends the Catholic Community at Stanford, California.[209] He also received the Mendel Medal from Villanova University, which it says "honors outstanding pioneering scientists who have demonstrated, by their lives and their standing before the world as scientists, that there is no intrinsic conflict between science and religion."[210]
  • Henry F. Schaefer, III (born 1944): He wrote Science and Christianity: Conflict or Coherence? ISBN 0-9742975-0-X and is a signatory of A Scientific Dissent From Darwinism. He was awarded the American Chemical Society Award in Pure Chemistry in 1979.[211]
  • James Tour (born 1959): He is Chao Professor of Chemistry at Rice University, Texas, where he also holds faculty appointments in computer science and materials; recognized as one of the world’s leading nano-engineers. Gained his Ph.D. in synthetic organic and organometallic chemistry from Purdue University, and postdoctoral training in synthetic organic chemistry at the University of Wisconsin and Stanford University. An Evangelical Christian, Tour has written: "I build molecules for a living, I can't begin to tell you how difficult that job is. I stand in awe of God because of what he has done through his creation. Only a rookie who knows nothing about science would say science takes away from faith. If you really study science, it will bring you closer to God."[212]

Physics and Astronomy[edit]

  • Stephen Barr (born 1953): Physicist who worked at Brookhaven National Laboratory and contributed papers to Physical Review as well as Physics Today. He also is a Catholic who writes for First Things and wrote Modern Physics and Ancient Faith. He teaches at the University of Delaware.[213]
  • John D. Barrow (born 1952): English cosmologist who did notable writing on the implications of the Anthropic principle. He is a United Reformed Church member and Christian deist. He won the Templeton Prize in 2006. He once held the position of Gresham Professor of Astronomy.[214][215]
  • Gerald B. Cleaver (born ????): Professor in the Department of Physics at Baylor University and head of the Early Universe Cosmology and Strings (EUCOS) division of Baylor's Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics & Engineering Research (CASPER). His research specialty is string phenomenology and string model building. He is linked to BioLogos and among his lectures are "“Faith and the New Cosmology."[216][217]
  • Guy Consolmagno (born 1952): American Jesuit astronomer who works at the Vatican Observatory.
  • George Coyne (born 1933): Jesuit astronomer and former director of the Vatican Observatory.
  • Manuel García Doncel, born in 1930, Spanish Jesuit physicist, formerly Professor of Physics at Universidad de Barcelona.
  • George Francis Rayner Ellis (born 1939): Professor of Complex Systems in the Department of Mathematics and Applied Mathematics at the University of Cape Town in South Africa. He co-authored The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time with University of Cambridge physicist Stephen Hawking, published in 1973, and is considered one of the world's leading theorists in cosmology. He is an active Quaker and in 2004 he won the Templeton Prize.
  • Pamela L. Gay (born 1973): An American astronomer, educator and writer, best known for her work in astronomical podcasting. Doctor Gay received her PhD from the University of Texas, Austin, in 2002.[218] Her position as both a skeptic and Christian has been noted upon.[219]
  • Karl W. Giberson (born 1957): Canadian physicist and evangelical, formerly a physics professor at Eastern Nazarene College in Massachusetts, Dr Giberson is a prolific author specializing in the creation-evolution debate and who formerly served as vice president of the BioLogos Foundation.[220] He has published several books on the relationship between science and religion, such as The Language of Science and Faith: Straight Answers to Genuine Questions and Saving Darwin: How to be a Christian and Believe in Evolution.
  • Owen Gingerich (born 1930): Mennonite astronomer who went to Goshen College and Harvard. Mr. Gingerich has written about people of faith in science history.[221][222]
  • J. Richard Gott (born 1947): Gott is a professor of astrophysical sciences at Princeton University. He is known for developing and advocating two cosmological theories with the flavor of science fiction: Time travel and the Doomsday argument. When asked of his religious views in relation to his science, Gott responded that "I’m a Presbyterian. I believe in God; I always thought that was the humble position to take. I like what Einstein said: “God is subtle but not malicious.” I think if you want to know how the universe started, that’s a legitimate question for physics. But if you want to know why it’s here, then you may have to know—to borrow Stephen Hawking’s phrase—the mind of God."[223]
  • Robert Griffiths (born 1937): A noted American physicist at Carnegie Mellon University. He has written on matters of science and religion.[224]
  • John Hartnett (born 1952): Australian Young Earth Creationist who has a PhD and whose research interests include ultra low-noise radar and ultra high stability cryogenic microwave oscillators.[225][226][227]
  • Michał Heller (born 1936): He is a Catholic priest, a member of the Pontifical Academy of Theology, a founding member of the International Society for Science and Religion. He also is a mathematical physicist who has written articles on relativistic physics and Noncommutative geometry. His cross-disciplinary book Creative Tension: Essays on Science and Religion came out in 2003. For this work he won a Templeton Prize. [note 6][228]
  • Antony Hewish (born 1924): Antony Hewish is a British Radio Astronomer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1974 (together with Martin Ryle) for his work on the development of radio aperture synthesis and its role in the discovery of pulsars. He was also awarded the Eddington Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1969. Hewish is a Christian.[229] Hewish also wrote in his introduction to John Polkinghorne's 2009 Questions of Truth, "The ghostly presence of virtual particles defies rational common sense and is non-intuitive for those unacquainted with physics. Religious belief in God, and Christian belief ... may seem strange to common-sense thinking. But when the most elementary physical things behave in this way, we should be prepared to accept that the deepest aspects of our existence go beyond our common-sense understanding."[230]
  • Colin Humphreys (born 1941): He is a British physicist. He is the former Goldsmiths’ Professor of Materials Science and a current Director of Research at Cambridge University, Professor of Experimental Physics at the Royal Institution in London and a Fellow of Selwyn College, Cambridge. Humphreys also "studies the Bible when not pursuing his day-job as a materials scientist."[231]
  • Christopher Isham (born 1944): Theoretical physicist who developed HPO formalism. He teaches at Imperial College London. In addition to being a physicist, he is a philosopher and theologian.[232][233]
  • Ard Louis: A reader in Theoretical Physics at the University of Oxford. Prior to his post at Oxford he taught Theoretical Chemistry at Cambridge University where he was also director of studies in Natural Sciences at Hughes Hall. He has written for The BioLogos Forum.[234]
  • Juan Maldacena (born 1968): Argentine theoretical physicist and string theorist, best known for the most reliable realization of the holographic principle - the AdS/CFT correspondence.[235]
  • Stephen Meyers (1958–): Physicist and earth science. Meyers wrote Signature in the Cell and Darwin's Doubt. Worked as a geophysicist for the Atlantic Richfield Company. Meyer earned his Ph.D. in history and philosophy of science in 1991. Director of the Center for Science and Culture at the Discovery Institute and Vice President and Senior Fellow at the DI.[236]
  • Don Page (born 1948[237]): Canadian theoretical physicist and practicing Evangelical Christian, Dr. Page is known for having published several journal articles with Stephen Hawking.[238][239]
  • William Daniel Phillips (born 1948): 1997 Nobel laureate in Physics (1997) who is a founding member of The International Society for Science and Religion.[240]
  • Andrew Pinsent (born 1966): Fr. Andrew Pinsent, a Catholic priest, is the Research Director of the Ian Ramsey Centre for Science and Religion at Oxford University.[241] He is also a particle physicist, whose previous work contributed to the DELPHI experiment at CERN.[242]
  • John Polkinghorne (born 1930): British particle physicist and Anglican priest who wrote Science and the Trinity (2004) ISBN 0-300-10445-6. Winner of the 2002 Templeton Prize.[243]
  • Joel Primack (born 1945): An American astrophysicist. A University of California, Santa Cruz, professor, he co-developed the cold dark matter theory that seeks to explain the formation and structure of the universe. Primack has written, "In the last few years astronomy has come together so that we're now able to tell a coherent story" of how the universe began. This story does not contradict God, but instead enlarges [the idea of] God."[244]
  • Carlo Rubbia (born on 31 March 1934)[2] is an Italian particle physicist and inventor who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1984 with Simon van der Meer for work leading to the discovery of the W and Z particles at CERN.[245]
  • Russell Stannard (born 1931): British particle physicist who has written several books on the relationship between religion and science, such as Science and the Renewal of Belief, Grounds for Reasonable Belief and Doing Away With God?.[246]
  • Walter Thirring (born 1927): Austrian physicist after whom the Thirring model in quantum field theory is named. He is the son of the physicist Hans Thirring, co-discoverer of the Lense-Thirring frame dragging effect in general relativity. He also wrote Cosmic Impressions: Traces of God in the Laws of Nature.[247]
  • Frank J. Tipler (born 1947): Frank Tipler is a mathematical physicist and cosmologist, holding a joint appointment in the Departments of Mathematics and Physics at Tulane University. Tipler has authored books and papers on the Omega Point, which he claims is a mechanism for the resurrection of the dead. His theological and scientific theorizing are not without controversy, but he has some supporters; for instance, Christian theologian Wolfhart Pannenberg has defended his theology,[248] and physicist David Deutsch has incorporated Tipler's idea of an Omega Point.[249]
  • Jennifer Wiseman: She is Chief of the Laboratory for Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. An aerial of the Center is shown. In addition she is a co-discoverer of 114P/Wiseman-Skiff. In religion is a Fellow of the American Scientific Affiliation and on June 16, 2010 became the new director for the American Association for the Advancement of Science's Dialogue on Science, Ethics, and Religion.[250]
  • Antonino Zichichi (born 1929): Italian nuclear physicist and former President of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. He has worked with the Vatican on relations between the Church and Science.[251][252]


  • Fred Brooks (born 1931): is an American computer architect, software engineer, and computer scientist, best known for managing the development of IBM's System/360 family of computers and the OS/360 software support package, then later writing candidly about the process in his seminal book The Mythical Man-Month. Brooks has received many awards, including the National Medal of Technology in 1985 and the Turing Award in 1999. Brooks is an evangelical Christian who is active with InterVarsity Christian Fellowship and chaired the Executive Committee for the Central Carolina Billy Graham Crusade in 1973.[253]
  • Richard H. Bube (born 1927): He is an emeritus professor of the material sciences at Stanford University. He is a member of the American Scientific Affiliation.[254]
  • Donald Knuth (born 1938): (Lutheran) The Art of Computer Programming and 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (1991), ISBN 0-89579-252-4.[255]
  • Oghogho Ikponmwosa (born 1977): He obtained a Ph.D degree in Electronic and telecommunications from the University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State Nigeria and is presently a Lecturer in the department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Landmark University Omu-Aran, Kwara State, Nigeria. He developed empirical models able to predict the Transmission control protocol (TCP) throughput and Round trip time in IEEE 802.11b WLAN Systems based on the observed signal to noise ratio (SNR) in various environments.[256] He is a member of the Nigerian Society of Engineers [257] and a Registered Engineer with the Council for the Regulation of Engineering in Nigeria (COREN).[258] He is the President of Save the Lost Gospel Evangelistic Ministry.[259] He holds teaching meetings and numerous crusades and outreaches where many souls are saved, healed and delivered from evil spirits.
  • Larry Wall (born September 27, 1954) the creator of Perl, a programming language. [260]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ In 1252 he helped appoint Thomas Aquinas to a Dominican theological chair in Paris to lead the suppression of these dangerous ideas.
  2. ^ Although Jansenism was a movement within Roman Catholicism, it was generally opposed by the Catholic hierarchy and was eventually condemned as heretical.
  3. ^ Carl Wilhelm Scheele discovered oxygen earlier but published his findings after Priestley.
  4. ^ As was Euler. Like Gauss, the Bernoullis would convince both sets of fathers and sons to study mathematics.
  5. ^ In the biography by Cambell (p. 170) Maxwell's conversion is described: "He referred to it long afterwards as having given him a new perception of the Love of God. One of his strongest convictions thenceforward was that 'Love abideth, though Knowledge vanish away.'"
  6. ^ He teaches at Kraków, hence the picture of a Basilica from the city.


  1. ^ A. C. Crombie, Robert Grosseteste and the Origins of Experimental Science 1100–1700, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971)
  2. ^ Helen S. Lang (1992). Aristotle's Physics and Its Medieval Varieties. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-1083-8.  and Lawrence & Nancy Goldstone (2005). The Friar and the Cipher. Doubleday. ISBN 0-7679-1472-4. 
  3. ^ Thomas F. Glick, Steven John Livesey, & Faith Wallis, eds. (2005). Medieval Science, Technology, and Medicine: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-96930-1. 
  4. ^ "Cusa summary". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  5. ^ Meyers Konversationslexikon 1888–1889, Jahn, I. Geschichte der Biologie. Spektrum 2000, and Mägdefrau, K. Geschichte der Botanik. Fischer 1992
  6. ^ "The Galileo Project". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  7. ^ "Danti biography". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  8. ^ "The Baconian System of Philosophy". Catholic Encyclopedia. 
  9. ^ Gascoigne, John (2010). "The Religious Thought of Francis Bacon". In Cusack, Carole M.; Hartney, Christopher. Religion and Retributive Logic. Leiden: Brill. pp. 209–228. ISBN 9789047441151. 
  10. ^ "Laurentius Paulinus Gothus (1565-1646)". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  11. ^ The Galileo Project and Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  12. ^ Cosmovisions and The Galileo Project Rice University's Galileo Project
  13. ^ "Pascal summary". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ "Barrow summary". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  17. ^ "Caramuel summary". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  18. ^ Galileo Project and University of Hanover's philosophy seminar
  19. ^ "Robert Boyle". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
  20. ^ "Robert Boyle". Retrieved 15 January 2015. 
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External links[edit]